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蔬菜作物病蟲防治策略反思

熱度0票  瀏覽34次 時間:2018年9月04日 14:58


摘要:隨著我國蔬菜作物種植面積的逐年擴大,病蟲防治工作也面臨著更高的要求。因為蔬菜作物在種植及食用方面存在一定的特殊性,因此在開展病蟲防治工作必須考慮到安全的原則。通過采取綜合防治的方法確保蔬菜質量的安全,對蔬菜作物的病蟲害進行有效的控制。

關鍵字:蔬菜作物;病蟲防治;方法策略

為了滿足市場的需求,我國各地加強了對蔬菜作物結構的調整,并且在農民增收的主導產業中蔬菜作物占據著重要位置,并且為了豐富我國的蔬菜作物品種還從國外引進了新的品種。我國從國外引進品種豐富我國的蔬菜作物品種但是也為蔬菜作物的病蟲害的產生與交流提供了有利的環境,因此對蔬菜作物的生產造成一定的影響。面對蔬菜作物存在的各種病蟲害問題工作人員如何采取有效的策劃成為各地面臨的重要的問題之一。

一、蔬菜作物病蟲害的特點

相比麥子、水稻等大宗農作物,蔬菜作物在栽培的方式、品種方面都與其不同。蔬菜作物的播種期、生育期都不同,再加上蔬菜在反季種植時大棚的溫度、濕度不一樣,因此在病蟲害很容易發生并且發生的程度有著非常大的差異性。蔬菜作物在一年四季都有可能發生病蟲害現象,而且一種病蟲都有可能對多種蔬菜作物產生危害性,蔬菜作物可能同時發生多種病蟲害的現象。目前我國的蔬菜作物品種種類繁多,常年發生的蔬菜的病蟲害有一百多種,因此需要及時的采取有效措施減少病蟲害給農民帶來的損失,同時提高蔬菜作物的產量。

二、 蔬菜作物病蟲害防治面臨的問題

(一)防治水平、專業技術人員水平有待提高

在蔬菜作物實際的病蟲害防治過程中,由于受到農業技術人員較為短缺、機構機制不完善等諸多問題的限制也影響病蟲害工作的進展。一般在農村的病蟲害的防治工作中可以安排的工作人員很少,并且還負擔著除了防治工作的其他工作,監測、報告都需要工作人員完成。雖然我國目前的病蟲害防治工作取得了一定的進展但是在廣大的農村還需要進行病蟲害工作的繼續推廣及完善。

目前我國農村從事蔬菜作物病蟲害的工作人員一般都是從麥子、水稻等大宗農作物病蟲害識別調過來,對蔬菜作物的病蟲害的防治、發生的具體規律知識了解很少,這些人員由于缺少專業的蔬菜作物病蟲害的防治經驗也就延誤了病蟲害的防治方法的研究,因此針對工作人員還要進行專業的培訓提升其業務水平。

(二)蔬菜作物的防治工作開展較晚

我國的蔬菜作物的防治工作相對較晚,工作人員對蔬菜作物的病蟲害發生的具體情況及發生的時間、規律都還不清楚,一是缺乏有經驗的教授或者前輩帶領因此在具體的蔬菜作物的防治工作中也是慢慢探索慢慢總結規律;未形成完整且有效的病蟲調查與測報體系,收集的數據缺乏必要的可比性及科學性。而且未對病蟲害的發生程度制定一定的等級劃分標準,僅根據有限年份的調查資料來確定病蟲害的發生程度,具有很強的主觀性;未采取完整且行之有效的病蟲害防治技術。由于蔬菜作物的病蟲防治要求的技術含量高,尤其在選用農藥方面,一旦使用不當,便極有可能使得殘留的農藥含量過高,進而發生食物中毒現象。當前,工作人員大多采用外地或書本中的經驗和技術,缺乏親自實踐,還未能充分了解一些蔬菜病蟲藥劑的作用與特性。

三、防治蔬菜作物病蟲的方法策略

(一)加強植物檢疫力度

目前我國蔬菜的生產已經查明的黃瓜黑星病、南美斑潛蠅、瓜實蠅、番茄潰瘍病等對蔬菜作為危害性極大的有害生物,通過在蔬菜種苗的引進過程中,檢疫相關部門要嚴把質量關,確保引進的蔬菜質量不會發生重要危害性問題。通過加強蔬菜的檢疫還能及時有效的控制危險性生物的蔓延,確保我國農產品的出口貿易、農業的生態安全。

(二)嚴格檢查遵循蔬菜質量安全

農產品的質量安全同每一個人的生命健康安全有著緊密聯系,而蔬菜作物的安全更是重中之重。人們通常是食用新鮮的蔬菜,未對其進行加工,而蔬菜也不具備儲存期與降解農藥的過程,因而對農藥的使用提出了非常高的要求。在此種情況下,必須圍繞產品安全來開展蔬菜作物的病蟲防治工作,切不可馬虎行事。

(三)保證施用農藥的時間在安全間隔期

蔬菜收獲之后應該及時送到消費市場,時間間隔不宜過長,一般是一兩天之內,最長也不會超過十天。為了確保消費者安全食用蔬菜,蔬菜病蟲害管理者在使用農藥時一定避開安全間隔期。為了減少食物中毒的情況,在進行農藥噴灑時部不要在安全間隔期內減少較大濃度農藥的殘留。通過在蔬菜的安全間隔期內進行用藥,當然還需要考慮到農藥的功能、特性和品種,注意用藥時的溫度等多方面的因素確保安全。

(四)使用低殘留、低毒的農藥

隨著生物科學技術的不斷發展,我國的農藥研究及發展也得到了顯著提高,更多的低毒、低殘留的農藥為蔬菜作物的病蟲害防治提供了有利的支持。除了堅持使用高效、低毒、低殘留的農藥,還需要加大安全使用農藥的力度,讓更多的菜農意識到正確、安全使用農藥的重要性,向廣大的農民號召使用更加科學的低殘留、低毒性的生物型農藥,在防治病蟲害的同時也能確保人們食用蔬菜作物是安全的。

結語:在經濟社會發展及人們生活水平的日益提高,人們對蔬菜作物的品質提出了更高的要求。為了滿足人們的生活食用的基本要求,各個部門都要加強蔬菜作物的質量安全可靠性,通過不斷的研制出新的病蟲害防治方法,降低蔬菜作物的農藥殘留度,通過采用生物、物理等多種綜合的有效方法解決蔬菜的病蟲害問題,提高蔬菜作物的產量滿足人們的需求。

參考文獻:

[1] 朱漢清.鹽城市蔬菜病蟲測報與防治工作存在的問題與思考[J].農業科技通訊 ,2012,8(06):208-209.

[2] 陶雅萍,林付根.蔬菜作物病蟲防治策略的思考 [J].中國農業信息 ,2011,25(09):115.



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