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湖北恩施地區實施退耕還林工程的生態與經濟效益評價

熱度0票  瀏覽34次 時間:2018年9月04日 14:56


摘要:李克強總理曾兩次到湖北恩施龍鳳鎮青堡村茶園溝組龔延強家,察訪民情。恩施龍鳳鎮茶園溝組路邊陡坡上有玉米地。李克強踩著泥滑山道攀上坡。村民說種掛坡地有三難:爬上去難、管理難、收成難,動不動被雨沖,被野豬啃。李克強說,這樣的地應退耕還林,改種經濟林。可以在這里進行移民建鎮、扶貧搬遷、退耕還林、產業結構調整綜合試點。

關鍵字:退耕還林  生態效益  經濟效益

    一、前言

    恩施土家族苗族自治州(簡稱恩施州),位于湖北省西南部,東連荊楚,南接瀟湘,西臨渝黔,北靠神農架。其地貌基本特征是:階梯狀地貌發育。境內除東北部有海拔3000米以上小面積山地外,普遍展示著海拔20001700米,15001300米,12001000米,900800米,700500米等五級面積不等的夷平面,并存在一至二級河谷階地。呈現明顯層狀地貌。2012年末全州戶籍總人口403.25萬人。恩施自治州除漢族外,還居住著土家族苗族侗族白族蒙古族回族28個少數民族。恩施地處山區、丘陵區;水土流失嚴重,糧食產量低而不穩、大多數糧食都種在25度以上的陡坡上,所以糧食收成靠天收,產量極低。

    李克強總理曾兩次到湖北恩施龍鳳鎮青堡村茶園溝組龔延強家,察訪民情。恩施龍鳳鎮茶園溝組路邊陡坡上有玉米地。李克強踩著泥滑山道攀上坡。李克強說,這樣的地應退耕還林,改種經濟林。可以在這里進行移民建鎮、扶貧搬遷、退耕還林、產業結構調整綜合試點。實施退耕還林是黨中央、國務院為改善生態環境做出的重大決策,此項決策的實施,受到了廣大農民的擁護和支持。

根據適地適樹的原則,我們現在搞退耕還林工程的主要樹種是茶葉和漆樹,茶苗由政府給老百姓提供,實際是茶苗每畝1200元,由政府出資,再招標供苗商,老百姓每畝給40元的車費補貼;在不適合栽種茶葉的地方種植漆樹,采取公司+合作社+基地+農戶的模式,目前有兩個合作社在經營,一個是雨臻漆樹專業合作社,一個是洪武漆樹專業合作社。我們目前正在對2013年度設計的退耕還林工程進行驗收,共有27000多畝,2014的度設計的有10000,2015年度進行驗收。

    二、退耕還林對恩施地區的影響

    (一)退耕還林對生態的影響

從生態角度來說,一方面,退耕還林增加了綠化面積改善環境保持水土。實施退耕還林工程,使森林得到緩解,保護了許多樹木的正常生長,同時還保護了許多珍貴木材的存留。大面積的綠化阻止了風化,保持了水土流失。另一方面綠化面積的增加也使得這一區域的物種多樣,從而使得生態平衡更加穩定大的生態平衡是由各個小的疊加影響。大批不同樹木的栽培,增加了生態的穩定性,同時使許多動物也有了安身之處,使那些快要滅絕的動物活下來,使生物鏈得以穩固,頑強。

    (二)退耕還林對經濟效益的影響

    從經濟效益來講,恩施退耕還林工程對勞動力及就業有一定的影響,許多農戶對退耕還林工程的態度比較積極,很配合國家的政策。畜牧業的發展,大面積的綠化,人們可以養動物,像牛、羊,畜牧業的逐漸發展,不僅可以促進生態的和諧,還可以增加農民的收入。眾多分析結果表明,退耕還林工程經濟有效性較好。在此基礎上通過專家咨詢綜合評估法對工程的綜合有效性給予評價,得出工程綜合效益良好的結論。通過成本效益法的分析,發現在生態恢復和重建中產生了多方面的退耕還林效益,農民的收入提高了,國家的投入也獲得了相應的回報。

    三、退耕還林存在的弊病

凡事有利也有弊,從整體來看,退耕還林是一個立國安邦,利國利民的好事,實施退耕還林使農民過上了好日子。但是,在退耕還林工程的實施過程中也存在著相應的弊病。

(一)工程建設的質量得不到保證

受到利益的驅使,農民自行采購不符合規定的種苗易造成種苗質量和數量不符合作業設計要求。許多農民為了獲利,采購一些低價,質量差,不易存活的樹苗,使得栽種后許多樹苗死掉,或者結的果實小,或者味道不好。

(二)易造成林地的破壞

退耕還林就是為了保護林地,防止水土流失,但是,在恩施的許多小地方,農民法制意識淡薄,一旦種苗費到手,將會采取上山挖野生苗,或到近幾年新造林地里偷盜樹苗等方式獲取種苗。這樣做,不僅之前的林地得不到保護,現在的工程也沒有辦法有效的實施。

(三)種苗成本增高

反而加重了農民負擔。許多商人,趁此機會開始抬高種苗的價格,退耕農戶大多單村獨戶的去購買樹苗,沒有數量優勢,苗木單價較統一購苗偏高,同時運輸成本也會加大,結果事與愿違。樹苗還沒栽下,農民已掏出了不少的錢,促使農民抱怨。

(四)將種苗補助費一次性發放給農戶

將錢一次性發給農民,許多人沒有真的全部拿去買苗木,而且看到這么多錢,意識淡薄的農民反而打消了積極性,著眼小利,目光短淺。另外,在第二年,許多沒有長成功死掉的樹苗,農民也不愿再拿錢補辦,導致退耕還林工程縮水。

四、結束語

為了提高經濟效益,使退耕還林工程更好的實施,可以進一步加強組織領導,實施好鞏固退耕還林成果項目。給農民交怎么去管理大面積林木,從而增加收益,還可以進一步加大宣傳退耕還林的工作,落實好鞏固退耕還林成果政策。最后還需要各級政府進一步加大資金扶持力度,確保鞏固成果資金最大效益的發揮。

參考文獻 :

[1] 孫霞.退耕還林還草研究之進展[J].現代農業科技2003,(04):16-19.

[2] 谷振賓.王立群 我國退耕還林生態影響及其評估研究進展 [期刊論文] -生態經濟2007(5)

[3]李冰雪.龍振江 退耕還林問責機制的法律研究 [期刊論文] -法制與社會2011(28)

[4] 彭珂珊, 王繼軍.中國退耕還林()的發展歷史階段與對策探討.水土保持研究,2004,1:106-109

 



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