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對鄉村學校體育教育現狀的思索

熱度0票  瀏覽138次 時間:2017年2月17日 15:09
對鄉村學校體育教育現狀的思索

近年來,作為實施素質教育主要途徑之一的學校體育教育獲得了迅速發展。但由于地區差異,這種發展又存在著極大的不平衡。在廣大農村,特別是某些偏遠地區,體育教育面貌與現代教育的要求還存在很大差距,其主要表現為以下幾個方面:
1.教育管理部門重視不夠
許多鄉村學校至今仍把守著應試教育這根"纏身令",以提高升學率為唯一追求,并以此衡量學校的教育質量和教師的工作成績。加之鄉村學生從小就受一種只有考上大學才能脫離農村的"傳統"教育。家里家外、校里校外,形成統一"思路"。尤其到了中學,只要是高考范圍之外的課程,一律不去“浪費”時間。基于這一思想,體、音、美自然成為可有可無的"小三門",被視為正常教學的附屬品。
此外,鄉村小學大都實行包班制。在這種情況下,如果遇到一位思想活躍、又有一定體育愛好和體育素質的包班教師,還可能靈活地給孩子們安排幾節體育課;反之,孩子對體育活動的渴望也就成了奢侈品,這對于無數渴望運動、愛好體育的兒童來說,不能不說是一種悲哀。
2.體育師資缺乏并質量堪憂
師資為教育之根本,其水平的高低將直接影響學校在某學科領域的教學水平。鄉村體育師資嚴重"貧血",多數學校無專職體育教師,其專業基本功也十分薄弱。據對某縣中小學校的調查顯示,僅有73%的中學和45%的中心小學配備有專職體育教師,在全部體育教師中,畢業于相關專業的又僅占體育教師總數的33%,即使這一部分人,為考核工作實績及晉職評優的需要,又有近半數改教了數學、語文等"主課",體育只是兼教,教師的專業能力又如何提高呢?
    3.教學設施嚴重不足
教學條件是學校的教學工作得以正常開展的重要保障,同時又是改進教學方法、提高教學質量的有力促進。但許多鄉村學校因對體育教育的漠視,不可能投資于體育教學設施的改善。有的學校連一塊普通的墊子也沒有,更談不上橫箱、踏跳板、體操棒、音像及多媒體等現代化教學設備。還有的學校即使有一些體育教學設備,也大多不真正用于日常教學,而只在少有的公開課、比賽課時偶爾亮相一下,其余時間則束之高閣如同文物展覽。
4.教學不規范
不少鄉村教師,尤其體音美老師缺少與外界的交流和借鑒學習,也少有本地區同行之間定期的教研活動,對國內外最新教育動態及先進的教學方法知之甚少,教學模式仍停留在二三十年前的水平。多數教師無法勝任新《課程標準》規定的教學內容,諸如對韻律體操、民族體育等要求感到力不從心;不少人不會備課,缺少教學資源,更無從設計規范的教案,探索新穎的教學方法;體育課上教師教得很吃力,學生學得很乏味,單一的教學形式難以獲得理想的教學效果。
針對我國鄉村學校反映出來的上述問題,迫切需要采取相應的對策:
1.改變思想觀念,提高對體育教育功能的認識
要改變當前鄉村的體育教育狀況,應首先提高對體育教育的認識,各級管理部門及廣大鄉村體育教師應轉變觀念,嚴格執行《課程計劃》,按《大綱》要求實施體育教育;加強提高對體育教育的認識,充分認識體育教育在鄉村不是可有可無的附屬品,而是增強學生身心素質的重要途徑,使學生真正做到德、智、體、美、勞"五育"并舉,全面發展;正確處理和解決"正課"與體音美等"副課"的關系,讓鄉村體育教育正常有序地開展起來,使其真正成為推行素質教育的主力軍。 
生活在廣闊農村的鄉村學生,時時處于大自然這一活動大空間內,這一得天獨厚的自然條件是城市學生所不及的,一些鄉村民間體育活動更是鍛煉身心的獨特"武器"。
2.加強體育師資隊伍的建設和培養
根據廣大農村體育師資嚴重不足的現狀,為基礎教育輸送人才的各級師范學校應結合社會需求,體現靈活而有針對性的辦學原則,如利用暑假及業余時間函授辦班;縣區中學師范、進修學校利用本校條件開設短訓班,并要求學生除搞好文化課學習之外,加強專業訓練,做到多能并兼;此外,縣鄉也可利用假期時間聘請教師,有組織地挑選鄉村學校有條件的體育教師,集中輪訓。在此帶動下,在崗體育教師更應鉆研業務,研究教學方法,讓校園內你呼我喊,你追我趕,處處出現體育氛圍。
3.加強對教學設施投入,有計劃地開展體育活動
學校應首先配備體育教學的基本設施,如教學用具、場地器材、音響設備等。通過單位投資、社會贊助及勤工儉學等辦法解決資金問題,還可以自力更生自做教具(如鐵環、"山羊"、輪胎等)。
此外,學校還應利用課余時間,有目的地組織學生開展豐富多彩的體育活動;保證課時,不得隨意侵占;應和其他學科平等地進行教學、考核,使得體育教育從學生到家長、從教師到領導,以至全社會都重視起來,為使學生進入自發、自由的體育鍛煉境地而努力。
國家新一輪基礎教育改革正在緊鑼密鼓的進行中,義務教育階段的中小學體育課程標準也已經出臺,我國的學校體育教育正面臨著從未有過的機遇和挑戰,鄉村體育教育任重道遠。作為教育整體的一個重要組成部分,每一位成員都應來關心、支持體育教育,尤其要關注相對落后的鄉村體育教育的發展,力爭在較短時間內使鄉村中小學體育教育的面貌有一個較大的改善,也只有這樣,全面實施素質教育才不致成為一句空話。
陳黎明:男、小教一級、江蘇省常熟市莫城中心小學教科室主任、
江蘇省體育教學能手大賽一等獎、已蘇州市學科帶頭人



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