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動作示范在體育教學中的作用

熱度0票  瀏覽94次 時間:2017年2月17日 15:05

動作示范是體育教學中最常用的一種直觀教學法。它是教師通過具體的動作示范,使學生在頭腦中建立起所要學習的動作的表象,以了解所學動作的結構、要領的方法。體育教學的目的是使學生學習并掌握一定的運動技能,而中學生運動技能的學習需要直接的感性經驗作支持。因此,體育教學中正確的動作示范,不僅可以使學生獲得必要的直接感受,以提高掌握動作要領的效率,而且還可以提高學生學習興趣,激發學生學習的自覺性,有利于形成正確的動力定型。可見,教師的示范對于取得優良的教學效果有著非常重要的作用。

有目的的示范可以使學生在頭腦中建立起正確的動作概念。教師示范的目的,是要使學生通過對教師形體動作的觀察,在頭腦中形成清晰的記憶表象,并使之“內化’,經過思維的加工,建立起正確的動作概念。因此,教師的每次示范都應明確所要解決的問題。比如:示范什么,怎樣示范等都要根據教學任務,教學步驟,以及學生可能接受的具體情況而定。例如教授新教材時,為了使學生建立完整的動作概念,一般可先做一次完整的示范,讓學生先觀察,了解整個動作的形象,結構和過程,然后結合教學要求,把動作分解,用慢速或常速做重點示范。

這樣,完整的示范就為重點示范作了必要的鋪墊,并使重點示范的動作更加鮮明、突出,以幫助學生較快地理教師講授的內容,達到預定的教學目的。

正確的示范可以造成一種躍躍欲試的心理氣氛,引發學生的學習興趣.興趣是使人對某種事物有一種特殊的欲求傾向,并力求積極參與該事物的心理特點。

正確的示范可以使學生在體驗到體育動作的形體美,力度美,嫻熟美和健康美的同時,獲得一種滿意的心理感受。并由此而產生學習體育技術動作的極大興趣。

因此,教師的示范動作要過硬,應該是動作的典范。一般要力求做到準確、熟練、輕快、優美、大方,使學生在學習活動一開始,就能受到教師示范動作的感染,在欣賞示范動作的同時受到一種力的鼓舞,美的熏陶。在教師正確的動作示范的影響下,使學生油然產生一種躍躍欲試的心理氣氛,從而提高學習動作技能的積極性,以保證教學任務的完成。

多方位的示范可以消除學習中的心理障礙。在中學體育教學中,由于學生生理的發育和心理的逐步成熟,尤其是中學生男女性別差異的增大,加之教學中動作技術難度的變化,導致學生在教學中動作學習發生困難,特別是在教授復雜的動作時,處理不好,往往會使學生產生一種不好意思或不愿學甚至害怕的心理障礙,影響教學任務的完成,對此,教師應根據學生的心理特點,巧妙地安排隊形,充分考慮動作的性質及安全要求等因素,來確定示范的位置和方向,盡可能做到多方位教學,以解除學生的不必要的思想負擔。示范前,還應注意分析動作的結構和要求,要考慮學生觀察動作的角度,講究動作示范的各個“面”。可采用正面、鏡面、側面、斜面和背面等。在實際教學中,為了顯示動作的左右距離,可采用正面示范,如籃球防守中的左右移動。為顯示動作的前后部位,可采用側面示范,如跨欄跑的“擺動腿”上欄動作和“起跨腿”后蹬,提拉動作等。





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