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淺談預應力型鋼混凝土組合結構

熱度0票  瀏覽167次 時間:2017年7月07日 09:00

【摘要】所謂型鋼混凝土組合結構是指在型鋼周圍布置鋼筋,
并澆筑混凝土的結構。型鋼混凝土梁較普通鋼筋混凝土梁具有剛
度大、承載性能高、斷面尺寸小及抗震性能好等優點,是今年來
在組合結構領域的重要發展方向。但是隨著跨度的增加,正常使
用極限狀態的限制條件往往會影響上述優越性的發揮,預應力技
術可以實現對構件拉應力區的應力控制,從而顯著改善構件在正
常使用階段的工作性能。
【關鍵詞】預應力;大跨;極限狀態;抗震性能
引言
近年來,隨著我國經濟的迅速發展,對建筑功能的要求越來
越高,建筑設計正朝著體型復雜、功能多樣的綜合性方向發展,
相應的結構形式也變得復雜多樣,大跨度、重載結構不斷涌現,
對結構體系提出了新的更高的要求。因此,組合結構的應用就越
來越廣泛,但隨著跨度和荷載的進一步增大,為了滿足正常使用
極限狀態,普通組合結構的性能往往不能得到充分的發揮,而預
應力技術可以顯著的改善結構在正常使用階段的工作性能,從而
使結構得到更充分的利用,在安全的前提下更加經濟,預應力型
鋼混凝土結構便是其中具有代表性應用形式。
1 預應力型鋼混凝土組合結構介紹
預應力混凝土技術堪稱是對混凝土結構的一次技術革命。當
今的預應力混凝土是用高強度鋼材和較高強度的混凝土經先進的
生產工藝制作的、用現代設計概念和方法設計的高效預應力混凝
土。預應力可以有效地改善結構的使用階段性能(如控制裂縫開
展和消除結構撓度等),提高受剪承載力和疲勞強度,改善卸載后
的恢復力性能,充分地利用高強度的鋼材,有效地調整結構的內
力等。當今,預應力技術在傳統應用領域的基礎上,已迅速擴大
到居住建筑、大跨與重載結構、大空間公共建筑、高層建筑、高
聳結構、地下結構、海洋結構及道路橋梁結構等領域。預應力的
概念和技術已成為新型結構體系創新的重要手段之一。
型鋼混凝土結構是在混凝土構件中配置型鋼,同時也配有少
量構造和受力鋼筋的鋼與混凝土組合結構。對于同截面而言,型
鋼混凝土結構比普通鋼筋混凝土結構的承載能力和剛度顯著提高,
尤其適合應用于大跨、重載及高層、超高層建筑中。另外,型鋼
混凝土結構還具有十分良好的延性和耗能能力,因而特別適用于
地震區。相比鋼結構建筑而言,型鋼混凝土結構可大量節省鋼材,
降低造價,彌補了鋼結構建筑防腐、防銹、防火性能差和維護費
用高的弱點。因而,在當前高層及超高層建筑及大跨、重載結構
中采用型鋼混凝土結構已成為工程結構研究與工程應用的熱點領
域。
但是,隨著跨度的增加或荷載的加大(如重載結構),正常使
用極限狀態的限制(如裂縫控制條件)條件往往會影響型鋼混凝
土結構上述優越性的發揮,而預應力技術則可以實現對構件拉應
力區的應力控制,從而顯著改善構件在正常使用階段的工作性能。
為此,若將預應力和型鋼混凝土技術結合起來,所形成的預應力
型鋼混凝土結構新體系將具有預應力結構和型鋼混凝土結構的雙
重優點。這種組合結構可利用型鋼混凝土技術提高結構的承載能
力,利用預應力技術改善型鋼混凝土結構在正常使用極限狀態下
的性能(如裂縫控制、變形控制等),進而形成一種預應力型鋼混
凝土組合結構新體系,從而可為組合結構技術的發展與應用以及
結構體系的創新開辟更廣闊的前景。
2 預應力型鋼混凝土組合結構國內外研究現狀
目前,國內外學者對預應力型鋼混凝土這種新興的結構形式
的研究和應用仍處于起步階段。試驗及有限元數值模擬研究都較
少,尤其缺少這種結構的抗震性能的試驗研究和有限元分析,且
沒有形成完善的指導工程應用的設計方法及理論依據,更沒有相
應的規范規程可依照。
2.1 國外研究狀況
在 20 世紀 60 年代,國外學者通過理論計算推導了預應力簡
支鋼-砼組合梁的預應力增量計算公式,并分析了預應力型鋼混凝
土結構的受力性能。在 20 世紀 80 年代以后,Saadatmansh 對兩根
預應力組合梁進行正彎矩與負彎矩的加載試驗,得到了荷載-撓度
曲線以及荷載-應變曲線。
2.2 國內研究狀況
80 年代以后,隨著我國改革開放政策,經濟迅速發展,該結
構在我國興起,最早應用主要是高層建筑的轉換層結構。但總的
來說,該結構在我國的應用相對有限,從而對預應力型鋼混凝土
組合結構研究和應用還處于起步階段,僅有少量的試驗研究,不
過近年來,預應力組合結構成為了工程研究的熱點問題。
李峰等人進行了兩根預應力型鋼混凝土梁和兩根普通型鋼混
凝土梁的實驗研究,研究表明:施加預應力可以明顯改善型鋼混
凝土梁的抗裂性能,從而增大了梁的剛度,對梁的承載力也起到
了一定的作用:預應力型鋼混凝土梁在荷載作用下的破壞機理與
普通鋼筋混凝土梁相似,最終受壓區的混凝土被壓碎而破壞。
傅傳國在托柱轉換層結構的研究中,制作了兩榀帶轉換大梁的
框架縮尺試驗模型,一榀為預應力型鋼混凝土轉換大梁的疊層空腹
桁架模型,另一榀為普通鋼筋混凝土等尺寸框架作為對比模型,研
究了反復低周水平荷載作用下的結構的抗震性能。研究表明,帶預
應力型鋼混凝土轉換大梁的框架具有更好的受力及抗震性能。
3 預應力型鋼混凝土組合結構研究的未來趨勢
綜上所述,對于預應力型鋼混凝土結構的研究和應用已取得
一定的成果,但缺乏對該結構構件系統的研究,在進一步深化科
研和推廣應用方面,尚有許多工作要做:
(1)基于試驗研究,進行預應力型鋼混凝土組合結構體系承
載機理、力學性能的理論分析,進一步細化梁正截面、斜截面承
載力和變形計算理論,進行裂縫控制研究。
(2)深化對梁抗震性能和抗震設計方法的研究,并開展疲勞
性能和長期性能的研究;
(3)開展對與梁連接的梁柱節點的承載力、抗震性能以及相
應設計方法的研究;
4 結語
隨著城市化趨勢進一步加速,其明顯特征就是巨型建筑發展
很快,出現不斷向大跨度、超高層及高聳建筑發展的趨勢,工程
實踐表明,傳統的結構很難適應現代大跨結構、重荷載結構及高
聳建筑的要求,預應力型鋼混凝土梁正以其跨度大、自重輕、節
省材料、截面尺寸小等突出優點,迎合著建筑結構的發展趨勢。
預應力型鋼混凝土將伴隨著組合結構成為我國 21 世紀土木工程實
際應用的重要形式之一,有著廣闊的前景。



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