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試論萊文森的會話含義理論——以影片《重返17歲》為例

熱度0票  瀏覽17次 時間:2019年5月15日 09:23
【摘要】本文從萊文森會話含義理論出發,以全新的視角分析影片《重返17歲》中的人物對白,解釋會話中有意識違反準則的語言現象,闡明萊文森會話含義理論對解讀影視作品具有的有效性,并使人們深刻體會語言的魅力。
  【關鍵詞】會話含義 萊文森 《重返17歲》
  目前國內外對會話含義的研究主要是基于語言學家格萊斯的相關理論展開的,對萊文森的會話含義理論研究成果不多,尤其是使之與典型影視作品相結合的研究則更少,對這部影片的分析主要以電影文學角度分析為主,沒有相關語言學研究。
  一、萊文森會話含義理論
  萊文森(1987)指出,在格萊斯的兩條數量準則以及方式準則的基礎上,提出三條原則:數量原則(Q-principle)、信息原則(I-principle)、方式原則(M-principle),每條原則都由“說話人準則”和“聽話人準則”這兩個部分構成。
  1.數量原則。
  (1)假若說話者斷言A(W),并且<S, W>(A表示一個任意句子框架,W表示較弱的信息,S表示較強的信息,K表示知道,~表示否定符號)構成霍恩等級,則能夠認為推斷K~(A(S)),即說話人知道更強的陳述是假的;
  (2)假若說話者斷言A(W),而且A(W)沒有推導出被嵌入的句子Q,但比之更強的陳述A(S)卻可以推導此句,除此之外,{S,W}構成對立集合(對立集合中前者的表達式是強式,后者的表達式是弱式),那么就可以預測~K(Q),也就是說話一方不知道Q成立與否。
  2.信息原則。說話人準則又稱為最小化準則,話語要說得盡可能少,僅僅說出談話目的需要的最少話語;聽話人推理又叫充實規則,依靠探尋十分詳盡的解釋,通過這種方式拓展講話者的說話內容。
  萊文森認為人類記憶儲存里,有若干個“常規關系”,這些客觀世界中的現實關系,如果根植在人類意識中,則會變成一種常規關系。因此,在話語中就不點自明,說話人可以說得盡量少,聽話人力求將話語信息擴充到最大極限化。
  萊文森認為信息量含義和數量含義不同之處在于增強信息的方法。比起原語句,信息量含義要顯得具體、確切;數量含義要依靠對一個更強的陳述的否定來充實信息。
  3.方式原則。在這條原則中,說話人準則不可以毫無根據的用冗長、晦澀、有標記的表達式;聽話人如果用這樣的表達式M,則與使用無標記表達式U時有不同意義——進一步來說,他是盡可能地避免U的定型聯想和信息量含義。一旦說話者選取這樣的表達式M,則話語產生的意思就會不同。
  二、萊文森會話含義理論在《重返17歲》中的運用1.數量原則與會話含義。
  Mike: Passing?
  Alex: Good.
  Mile: Dribbling?
  Alex: Good.
  這段對話是邁克詳細地問兒子在籃球方面的表現。當邁克具體地說傳球,運球都表現的怎么樣時,亞歷克斯回答說“Good”,然而,作為父親的邁克期望得到的回答并不僅僅是“Good”,于是暗示兒子,“Good”是不能幫助拿到獎學金的。這時,亞歷克斯便隨口說出“Great”,以此滿足父親的期待。其中,<great, good>構成霍恩等級關系,good沒有達到great的程度,great提供的信息較強,good提供的信息較弱。亞歷克斯第一次說“Good”的含意是“尚未達到Great的程度”。用了弱式表達,言外之意是自己的籃球水平還不是非常好。然而,這沒有給出父親想要的足夠信息,面對父親的再一次詢問,亞歷克斯就按照父親的期待說自己的籃球水平達到了“Great”的程度。這里可以明顯看出亞歷克斯違法數量原則,說了假話,遵循了禮貌原則。暗示了自己因為不想讓父親再問關于籃球的事情,就選擇了父親期待得到的答案,敷衍父親。
  2.信息原則與會話含義。Scarlet: …and have water…streaming in from both sides. And then put a big deck right here…and then a flagstone patio there with sod in between. That wouldbe pretty. And then to have twinkling lights above the whole thing… so that every night is a starry one.
  邁克在表現出對花園感興趣后,斯佳麗帶邁克來到自己的修建的花園,繼而解釋了花園之前照料的不是很好,又說了自己打算在花園里放置一個水池,然后還要放一個臺子,鋪草坪……。斯佳麗回答的話語量明顯超過了邁克詢問所需要的最小信息量。在違反了這一原則的同時,我們可以推斷斯佳麗和邁克特別投緣,想把自己對于花園的真實想法都告訴邁克,向他介紹自己將如何布置喜愛的花園,邁克也可以從斯佳麗過量的回答中更深刻了解她現在的心理狀態。
  3.方式原則與會話含義。Mike: Stan dumped you? Standumped you? What? What happened? How did this…? What didhe do? What did he do?
  重返17歲的邁克重返學校,變成了他的兒子、女兒的同班同學。邁克發現女兒一個人在操場上悲傷流淚之時,知道女兒失戀了,他用20個單詞構成的7個問句詢問麥琪,表現出對女兒的關心,當麥琪說完具體情況后,邁克語重心長地安慰麥琪,隱含在文字底下的是Mike復雜的心情,邁克知道了一個父親需要承擔的責任,復雜的心情通過晦澀不自然的語言表現出來,深刻感人、給人一種意味深長的感覺。
  把萊文森會話含義理論應用到賞析影視作品中也進一步豐富了這一理論。同時,也拓展了這一理論的應用,并對我們日常生活中如何更好地交流也有一定的現實意義。
  參考文獻:
  [1]何兆雄.新編語用學概要[M].上海:上海外語教育出版社,2000.



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