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淺析城市道路病害治理

熱度0票  瀏覽21次 時間:2019年1月23日 14:23
摘 要: 隨著我國城市經濟的不斷發展,城市道路得到空前發展,然而城市道路的工程質量及交通服務功能的提高還需提高。基于此,文章對城市道路常見病害及病害治理進行淺析,希望能對城市道路的發展有所益處。
  關鍵詞: 城市道路;病害;治理
  1  城市道路常見病害
  1.1 縱向裂縫
  現象 :沿道路縱向開裂,一般與行車方向基本平行,但長寬不等。產生主要原因 :混合料攤鋪時縱向施工搭接不好,冷接縫結合不緊密 ;縱向溝槽回填土壓實質量差而發生沉陷 ;拓寬路段的新老路面交界處不均勻沉降 ;局部地基天然含水量較高,出現不均勻沉降 ;或中央分隔帶、綠化帶等滲水使局部路基含水量增加,承載力降低,在動靜荷載的作用下,路基產生滑動。
  1.2 橫向裂縫
  現象 :沿道路的橫向開裂,與道路中心線基本垂直,長度有貫穿整個路幅的,也有橫穿部分路幅的,貫穿縫沿路面一般分布均勻。產生的主要原因 :當收縮拉應力超過瀝青混凝土的抗拉強度時,瀝青路面表面就會被拉裂,并逐步向下發展,形成上寬下窄的橫向裂縫 ;基層在成型過程中因混合料水分蒸發干燥引起收縮,或者在寒冷季節發生低溫收縮。基層產生裂縫后,隨著溫濕的循環變化及行車荷載的反復作用而導致瀝青面層底面裂縫,裂縫將逐漸反射到瀝青層表面。
  1.3 網狀裂縫
  現象:由一系列多邊形小塊組成網狀開裂,裂縫縱橫交錯,它的初始形態一般是單條或多條平行的縱縫,而后在縱縫間出現橫向和斜向連接縫,形成縫網。產生的主要原因 :瀝青及瀝青混合料質量差,或路面材料配合不當,拌和不均,瀝青與石料粘結差 ;路面結構中夾有軟弱層或泥灰層,粒料層松動,水穩性差 ;路面出現橫裂或縱裂后未及時封填,致使水分下滲,使基層表面被泡軟,在汽車荷載反復作用下,基層表面被逐步淘空,產生網裂。
  1.4 車轍和推移
  現象 :車輛輪跡帶下形成的縱向連續下沉,在路面上呈現帶狀凹槽,并伴隨出現路面縱向裂縫及輪跡帶兩側路面程度不同的隆起。產生的主要原因 :渠化交通及停剎車頻繁等路段,車輛荷載的反復作用形成轍槽 ;道路基層的厚度或基層整體強度不足,因荷載作用造成變形過大而形成轍槽和推移 ;面層強度及熱穩定性差,車輪碾壓的反復作用使變形不斷積累形成車轍和推移。
  2  城市道路病害治理質量控制
  2.1 綜合養護方案的確定
  針對城市道路存在的老化現象,以及瀝青路面的貧油和道路反射裂縫問題,要認真做好彎沉調查測定路面的結構承載力,以此確定乳化瀝青稀漿雙封層的設計方案。這一方案的實施能夠避免單層封層的剝落以及車轍修復能力差問題,通過兩層封層能夠達到改善瀝青路面的平整度以及路面的抗滑性、抗老化性和抗滲性的提高。稀漿封層的厚度能夠起到很好的抗滑性另外,稀漿封層混合料稠度小,流動性好,這對彌合原路上的微裂縫起到很好的作用,能夠改善原瀝青面層的老化狀況。一般老路病害的處理是針對反射裂縫和局部網裂沉陷,反射裂縫的整治采用瀝青封縫能夠防止鋪設防裂貼對鋪設雙封層平整度的不良影響。采用 SBS 改性瀝青進行封縫處理能夠達到很好的封縫效果,對城市道路存在的局部網裂沉陷要進行局部的挖補,為了防止考慮到采用素混凝土補強形成的反射裂縫一般采用黑色碎石補強。
  2.2 裂縫的維修
  橫、縱裂縫主要是由于路面的溫縮和干縮引起的,如果縫寬還未達到 5mm,可先清理縫隙中殘存的雜物和灰塵,然后用比較稀薄的熱瀝青填補裂縫底部,之后用經過乳化后的瀝青灌注、封堵裂縫至縫深的 2/3,最后以干凈的石屑填滿裂縫。
  而對于超出 5mm 的大裂縫,由于縫寬太大,在熱瀝青填補縫底部時,需用乳化的熱瀝青搗實,如遇高溫季節,則不可全部填合,需要保留部分輕微裂縫。
  2.3 松散的修補
  如遇大面積的路段松散病害,可全部清除干凈后重新噴油下封,然后用輕型的壓路機壓實即可,但如果是因高溫而出現的局部松散,則應擴大挖除松散面積,并在填入結實的厚石屑之后,再重新做面層。其次重做面層的用料,應按松散的性質不同而有明確區分,瀝青老化而形成的松散,不應再用酸性的石料,如果松散位于堿性地區,則應在瀝青中合用一些抗剝離劑和增粘劑,以提高瀝青混合料的面型和穩定性。
  2.4 坑槽的修復
  針對單一的坑槽,首先應測量好破損的尺寸,畫出大致與路中心線平行或垂直的坑槽修補輪廓線,并且在開槽時,將槽底、槽壁清理干凈,并開鑿到穩定部分,保持槽壁垂直,而對于路基已破壞的情況,則應針對破壞原因,先處理基層病害,待基層密實穩定后,再修復面層。
  2.5 罩面維修
  罩面維修是瀝青混凝土路面保養的一項工程,能夠保證路面完整。在罩面維修中要對瀝青混凝土路面的損壞進行處理,例如,鋪接路面裂縫、修補車轍與推移等。罩面維修能夠改善路面的使用,提高路面的結構性能,以滿足將來的交通量需求。
  加強罩面維修工程管理,保證工程質量是公路養護過程中的一項重要工作。
  3  結語
  隨著城市交通的快速發展,城市道路出現了各種各樣的病害問題,直接影響到使用功能,嚴重的可能會危及人民的生命財產安全。更新管理思路,合理的規劃布局,科學設計方案,精細組織施工,強化有力的監管,可能最大限度地延遲道路橋梁的使用壽命,同時也應加強養護措施,合理對城市橋梁和道路進行改造維護,才能保證城市的道路橋梁達到安全、快捷、順暢、舒適目的。
  參考文獻 :
  [1] 封建武,溫高峰.高速公路病害分析與處治技術[M].北京:人民交通出版社,2009(7).
  [2] 馬華堂.公路工程病害分析與防治[M].河南:黃河水利出版社,2008(9).
  [3] 沈艷東,崔巖,陳立春.公路養護技術[M].北京:北京理工大學出版社,2009(8).



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