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基于創新、創業背景下計算機基礎課程體系構建的思考

熱度0票  瀏覽40次 時間:2018年8月03日 14:19
  摘要:針對“大眾創業、萬眾創新”及“互聯網+”經濟新形態的時代背景下,根據體育專業大學生特點,闡述了高校體育專業學生應具備的計算機能力及為大學生創新、創業活動服務的計算機基礎課程體系的構建,并對相關課程的建設提出建議。
  關鍵詞:創新;創業;計算機基礎課程體系;課程建設中圖分類號:G647.38 文獻標識碼:A 文章編號:1673-1131(2015)10-0259-01隨著社會信息化的發展,就業單位對大學生信息素養提出了較高要求,對計算機應用能力要求不斷增加。為適應社會發展與就業需要,教育部高等學校計算機科學與技術教學指導委員會編寫了《于進一步加強高等學校計算機基礎教學的意見暨計算機基礎課程教學基本要求(試行)》在“計算機基礎教學內容的知識結構與課程設置”中提出了“1 +X”的課程方案,即 1 門“大學計算機基礎”課程(必修)加上幾門其他計算機課程(可以是必修也可以是選修課程)。目前,高校大多按照這一方案開設了符合專業特色的計算機基礎課程。
  黨的十七大提出“提高自主創新能力,建設創新型國家”
  和“促進以創業帶動就業”的發展戰略。李克強總理在 2014 年政府工作報告中的重要主題也是“大眾創業、萬眾創新”。而大學生正是最具創新、創業潛力的群體之一。目前高等學校已經開展了創新、創業教育,創業基地建設等,并積極鼓勵高校學生自主創業。那么計算機基礎課程建設在滿足學生就業需求的同時,如何為大學生創業服務,提供知識基礎是值得思考的問題。本文以體育專業院校為例,對計算機基礎課程建設如何為大學生創新能力培養、為大學生創業提供知識基礎進行了探討。
  1 符合大學生創業需要的體育專業計算機基礎課程體系設計
  大學計算機基礎課程教學開展的目的是為非計算機專業學生提供計算機知識、能力與素質方面的教育,提高和加強大學生計算機基本知識的掌握和基本應用的技能。大學計算機基礎課程的設置既要滿足學生就業的需要,同時也應為當代大學生的創新、創業活動提供知識和技術基礎,因此在課程體系結構中要考慮對上述計算機能力的培養來進行設計。對于體育專業學生的計算機基礎課程設置我們仍然采用“1 + X”
  模式,即“大學計算機基礎(必修)”+“計算機高級課程(任選或限選)”。
  (1)體育專業大學計算機基礎課:“大學計算機基礎”課是大學生的第一門計算機基礎課,通過該課程的學習學生可以掌握計算機的基本應用,同時也為學習計算機其他課程奠定了基礎。在這門課程中通常設置幾個模塊:計算機發展概述、操作系統、Word、Excel、PowerPoint、計算機網絡概述。體育專業大學生對理論知識的掌握能力比較薄弱,所以在大學“計算機基礎”這門課程里將一些不易理解的理論知識進行了刪減,重點在于對計算機基本應用能力的培養。
  (2)體育專業計算機高級課程:這類課程的內容更側重于實際應用,主要是對某些軟件的學習與應用。包括網頁設計、平面圖像處理、Flash動畫制作、數據庫設計、視頻處理技術、多媒體課件制作六門課程。可以設置為限選課程或任選課程,各學院根據專業特點進行課程設置,選擇其中的一門或兩門課程。作為限選課,體育教育專業可以選擇多媒體課件制作課程,體育管理專業可以選擇數據庫設計課程,體育表演專業可以選擇視頻處理技術課程等,其他專業不在此一一贅述。除了必修課程和限選課程之外,其他計算機基礎課程可以作為任選課,讓學生根據自己的興趣進行選擇。
  2 針對上述課程體系設計進行課程建設的幾點建議2.1 教材建設
  一方面,隨著計算機技術的發展,計算機軟件、硬件更新換代速度較快,計算機課程教學內容也會隨之更新,計算機基礎課程教材的建設要跟上計算機技術更新的步伐,不斷地進行補充和更新;另一方面,根據體育專業學生學習特點,編寫以應用為主的高質量教材。例如在教材中增加項目式教學內容,介紹知識的同時,介紹一些典型項目輔助學生對知識的理解與應用。
  2.2 師資隊伍建設
  師資隊伍建設除了對教師學歷、職稱、科研成果等方面進行考察之外,還應注重教師知識水平與教學能力的提高。計算機基礎教學的難度和知識的廣度都需要教師不斷提高自身的基本素質,不斷學習交流,可以通過進修或網絡自學的方式進行。同時,計算機專業教師也可以與體育專業教師合作科研項目,或是指導學生創新、創業社團活動等方式了解體育專業學生對計算機知識的需求,提高計算機基礎課程教學質量。
  2.3 教學方法改革
  在教學方法改革方面,高校教師要轉變觀念,當代大學生對新媒體、新知識的接觸范圍廣,學生的個性特點更加鮮明,體育專業學生更是知識水平參差不齊,對理論知識的理解能力相對薄弱。教學方法的應用應符合大學生的特點,例如任務驅動教學法、表象教學法、項目教學法、分層次教學法等教學方法在課堂教學中的應用是值得探究的。
  在“大眾創業、萬眾創新”的時代背景下,高校計算機基礎教育中對大學生計算機能力的培養要為大學生創新、創業活動服務。計算機基礎課程體系的設計與課程建設活動要符合學生需求,不斷更新理念、創新思維,探索符合國情、學情的計算機基礎課程體系建設。
  參考文獻:
  [1] 張進良,等.從美國的信息素養教育談我國大學生信息素養的培養[J].電化教育研究,2003(8):72-74
  [2] 張莉.構建高校計算機基礎課程體系,創新精品課程建設[J].計 算 機 教 育,2010(3):75-77
  [3] 孫春玲.設計合理的計算機課程體系,培養學生的創新能力[J].計 算 機 教 育,2009(13):13-15



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