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案例教學法在《基礎會計學》中的應用

熱度0票  瀏覽11506次 時間:2015年3月25日 08:52


 

 

 

案例教學法在《基礎會計學》中的應用

魏英軍

(鎮江高等職業技術學校 江蘇省鎮江市  212016

 

摘要《基礎會計學》是會計專業的入門學科,對后續會計專業課程的學習具有深遠的影響。但凡教過這門學科的老師都有一個體會:《基礎會計學》難教,學生也難入門。因為,這門學科包含了許多抽象的概念、基本的原理、方法、技能等,對于初學者來說,要理解這些概念、原理,掌握這些方法和技能的確有很大的難度。作為教師,就要在教學方法上進行研究,經過多年的實踐,將案例教學法引進《基礎會計學》對提高課堂教學效果具有重大的意義。

關鍵詞案例教學法基礎會計學應用

一、       案例教學法對提高《基礎會計學》課堂教學效果的意義

案例教學法是一種以案例為基礎的教學法,如何將該方法應用到基礎會計教學中,需要經過教師收集準備案例、學生自行準備、小組討論和得出結論幾個階段。現以一具體案例來說明分析其在基礎會計教學中的作用:ZH公司為有限責任公司。公司開業前收到所有者投資的出資款600000元,存入銀行;從銀行取得短期借款40000元,已劃轉至本公司賬戶;購置設備一臺,以銀行存款支付價款300000元;購入原材料一批,價款共計80000元,貨款尚未支付;從銀行提取現金10000元,以備零星開支。問題如下:1.ZH公司資產總計為多少元?其中固定資產的設備、屬于存貨的原材料、現金和銀行存款分別是多少元?2.ZH公司負債總計為多少元?其中屬于負債的短期借款和應付賬款分別是多少元?3.ZH公司所有者投資為多少元?4.資產、負債與所有者權益之間有什么關系?

對于這個案例中提出的問題,學生需要在理解資金運動、會計要素、會計科目以及會計基本等式的基礎之上才能回答。公司開業前收到所有者投資的出資款600000元,存入銀行;從銀行取得短期借款40000元,已劃轉至本公司賬戶涉及到資金的兩條來源渠道;購置設備一臺,以銀行存款支付價款300000元;購入原材料一批,價款共計80000元,貨款尚未支付;從銀行提取現金10000元,以備零星開支涉及到企業資金的運用;收到出資、向銀行借款、購置設備、原材料、貨款尚未支付等涉及到具體的會計科目;資產、負債和所有者權益涉及到會計要素;資產、負債與所有者權益之間有什么關系則涉及到會計基本等式。由此可見,一個案例將多個概念和方法聯系在一起。通過這種案例的教學,既加深了學生對于基本概念的理解,又需要學生經過縝密的思考從而才能提出解決問題的方案,進而最終提高了學生的應用能力。

案例教學法改變傳統教學中教師直接告訴學生怎么做,而是鼓勵學生自主思考,在收到案例后,先消化,然后查閱所需要的資料,既加深了對理論知識的理解,又提高了學生學習的主動性。通過小組討論,還可以鍛煉學生的語言表達能力和溝通能力。另外對于知識點再不是簡單的堆積,而是通過案例將相關知識點融合在一起,起到融會貫通的作用,對提高學生學習興趣和課堂效果具有重大意義。

二、       案例教學法在基礎會計中應用時應注意的問題

當然,將案例教學法在基礎會計學中應用,提高課堂效果,從教室收集準備案例、學生自行準備、小組討論到得出結論需要師生共同的努力。經歸納應注意以下問題:

(一)   教師在教學中改變傳統的教學模式

傳統的教學模式中,教師講,學生聽,整個課堂以教師為主體,至于學生聽了多少,會不會,一般到考試的時候才能暴露;而案例教學法就是要把課堂還給學生,突出學生的主體作用,鼓勵學生自己發現問題、分析問題和解決問題,并且就自己的觀點在小組中進行交流,起到學生之間的競爭和取長補短,從而能起到激勵學生的作用。另一方面,傳統的基礎會計教學中,就書本知識點逐一講解,枯燥乏味,抽象難懂;而案例教學法則以具體的案例,生動形象展示現實生活,讓學生們身臨其境,將抽象的概念具體化,形象化。例如:為了讓學生學習原始憑證,就要通過描述一個案例先讓學生認識常見的原始憑證。案例如下:某公司銷售業務經理老張代表公司去上海參加汽車博覽會,5天后回公司,向財務處報銷差旅費用,提交了往返火車票、在上海的住宿費發票、博覽會會務費收據、購置資料費發票、購買服裝發票、餐費發票、出租車發票等單據。會計人員對單據進行審核,告知老張,按照公司會計制度規定,本次出差所發生的往返火車票、在上海的住宿費發票、博覽會會務費收據、購置資料費發票可報賬,而購買服裝發票、餐費發票、出租車發票不屬于公務出差報銷的范圍,不予報銷。老張在會計的指導下,把能夠報銷的單據按照要求進行整理,并填寫了報銷封面,經主管領導和財務經理簽字后辦理報銷手續。根據案例提出如下問題:什么是差旅費報銷?能報銷的火車票、住宿費發票、會務費收據、資料費發票等表示公司發生了什么業務?讓學生在案例中了解原始憑證。

(二)   案例的選擇必須恰當

案例的質量是發揮案例教學法的關鍵。一般情況下,案例的選擇應當注意以下幾點:(1)要根據教學對象有針對性的選擇典型案例,切忌案例過大過難,并且選擇的案例應該是實踐中會發生的,要能起到觸類旁通、舉一反三的作用。(2)選擇的案例要貼近生活,具有可感知性。(3)選擇的案例要切實能為教學內容服務,具有現實的指導意義。(4)案例應該是真實可信的,教師不能主觀臆斷、虛構而作。(5)案例的選擇應具有趣味性。真實固然是前提,但案例不能僅僅是數據等的羅列,應當具有一定的情節,具有時間、地點、人物和事情等要素,這樣才能提高學生的學習興趣,充分發揮案例教學法的作用。(6)選擇的案例要有矛盾沖突。如果選擇的案例一眼可忘穿結果,就不會引起學生足夠的興趣和激烈的討論。因此,應選擇多樣化的案例。

總之,教師應根據學生的現狀、本著為教學內容服務的宗旨去從實踐中去選擇典型、生動、多樣化的案例,充分發揮案例分析法在課堂教學中的作用。

(三)   應正確認識案例的作用

案例的選擇是為教學所服務的,而不能替代理論講解,將理論教學與案例教學分割。另外在案例教學法中應更加注重案例討論的過程。

三、       結論

在實踐中,將案例教學法運用到基礎會計教學中,能將晦澀、抽象的知識點生活化、形象化、生動化。能促進學生參與課堂、提高學生閱讀、分析、討論和歸納解決問題的能力。在教學中,教師同樣是學生,能起到教學相長的作用。當然,運用該方法,對教師的要求更高,首先教師要改變傳統的“教師圍著課本轉,學生圍著教師轉”的傳統教學模式,而應該以提高學生能力入手,從而提高學生總體素質為教學目標,精心選擇案例,組織課堂討論,發揮評價機制,提高課堂效率。

參考文獻:

[1] 鄭金洲.案例教學指南【M.華南師范大學出版社 2000

[2]喬鳳霞.淺談案例教學法在“基礎會計學”課堂教學中的應用【J】城市建設理論研究,201208

鎮江高等職業技術學校魏英軍職稱:副教授



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