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管道陰極保護技術現狀與展望

熱度0票  瀏覽18次 時間:2019年7月05日 11:11
  摘要:本文就管道陰極保護技術從發展流程、保護原理、工程技術以及展望方面進行探究,這對于我國自主創新陰極保護科技事業的進步與發展起到及其重要的作用。
  關鍵詞:陰極保護;管道;保護原理
  一、管道陰極保護研究進展
  最早使用管道陰極保護的是英國人漢費雷.戴維就,他在1824年發現了用鋅去保護木艦艇銅包皮的方法,從此開啟了陰極保護的先河。然而真正奠定現代電化學與陰極保護理論基礎的是他的學生法拉第,著名的科學家法拉第發現了電流與腐蝕的定量關系——法拉第定律。然而這項技術并沒有在當時應用于管道之上,第一次應用陰極保護措施的是美國科學家羅伯特科恩,1928年他第一個在新奧爾良的輸氣管道上安裝了為陰極保護提供直流電流的整流器。后來又提出了-0.85V的保護原則,真正意義上為現代陰極保護技術奠定了基礎。
  多年以來,這項陰極保護技術在不斷發展,逐漸走向成熟,工業發達的國家已經將此列入了設計規范及法規中。我國于1989年國務院頒布的“石油、天然氣管道管理條例”中就涉及到了陰極保護的內容,從這以后,陰極保護就成為了公認的防止金屬電化學腐蝕的最有效方法。
  二、保護機理
  陰極保護可以與涂復技術相配套,在工程上來講,是一種十分有效的防腐技術。陰極保護作用的機理就是在腐蝕電化學的基礎上進行研究的,它有腐蝕電池機理是完全相反的,它產生的是保護體,而電化學腐蝕是侵蝕自身的物質。它在通過放置于水中或者埋在金屬構筑物中,通過電流的反向流動,使腐蝕轉移,從而達到防腐。
  三、陰極保護技術——區域性陰極保護
  在沒有區域性陰極保護技術的發明之前,長距離的油氣管道防腐都是通過涂敷材料來實現的,但是通過涂敷材料在某些情況下是不能實現的,因此就有了區域性陰極保護技術的發展。目前在某些情況下區域性保護技術還是相對緩慢的。顧名思義,區域性陰極保護的機理就是將需要保護的看做是一個整體,它為了能夠達到防腐的效果,依靠保護電流的分配,合理布局輔助陽極和電絕緣的方法,這樣就將保護對象放置于規定的保護電位之內了,從而達到了防腐的要求。這種技術的保護對象不是單一不變的,而是整個保護區域類的所有金屬構件,保護范圍較廣。在我國當前情況下,這項技術還在初級的探索中,首先在我國的應用是70年代的勝利油田,在當時第一次實施這項技術。隨著該項技術的成功應用,目前國內已經有很多企業也在成功的使用,取得了很好的發展。從我國以及國外的成功案例發展,這項技術相比其他的防腐保護技術來說,是更具實用性和有效性。
  四、陰極保護方法探究
  1.犧牲陽極法
  這種方法的作用機理是將比需要保護的金屬或者合金的電位更低的金屬或者合金,共同放置于同一個溶液中,由于電位更低,所以在溶液中,比保護金屬更快的溶解,釋放出電流,從而保護了需要進行保護的金屬,防止被腐蝕。那么該項保護技術需要在哪些條件下達到要求:
  (1)金屬本身能在溶液中產生穩定電流;
  (2)自身的腐蝕速率要低,要能長期進行防腐;(3)產生的保護電流量要大;
  (4)被腐蝕后產生的廢物必須是無害的,不能對環境產生危害;
  (5)金屬材料來源廣泛,加工容易,價格低廉。
  2.強制電流法
  強制電流法的作用機理是與陽極保護不同的,它主要是從外部加入電流,這樣就可導致需要被保護的金屬陰極化,達到和陽極保護法相同的保護措施。強制電流法需要的基礎構件包括穩定的直流電源、連接電源的輔助陽極和連接所需要的電纜線,輔助陽極的作用就是要把外接的電流通入到系統中,故陽極工作時處在電解狀態下。按陽極的溶解性能劃分,輔助陽極可以分為不溶性陽極、可溶性陽極、微溶性陽極三大類。
  3.排流保護法
  排流保護法的機理就是為有其他干擾電流的情況下,利用排除方法,對需要保護的構件進行保護作用的一樣方法。排流保護法有三種主要措施,第一種方法就是直接排流,該方法需要外接電源,在穩定的情況下,改穩定電流可以保護金屬或合金,排除其他干擾電流。改項方法需要謹慎使用,如果采用不當,就會造成更大的干擾,甚至是危險。第二方法是極性排流,因為二極管具有單向通過性的作用,只可以通過一方電流,在有正負干擾的電流情況下,就需要插入二極管,這樣就可以保證電流通過一個方向,從而保護金屬體。第三種方法是強制排流。上述二種方法只能在排流時才能對保護體施加保護,如果不是排流期間,就無法起到保護作用。這樣就需要強制排流的方法,利用恒定的整流器產生電流,從而達到需要保護作用。
  展望
  現在由于我國的經濟建設規模的不斷擴大和深入,陰極保護技術工程應用可以說是具有廣泛的應用前景和市場。更多的科技創新熱點必將出現,未來管道的陰極保護技術應該向著更加節能環保的方向發展,有著自己獨特的技術。希望在不久的將來可以深層次的繼續開拓。
  參考文獻:
  [1]顏東洲.黃海.李春燕《國內外陰極保護技術的發展和進展》[期刊論文] -全面腐蝕控制2010(3).
  [2]岳曉鈺.何振平.徐榮敏《陰極保護技術在長輸管線工程中的應用》[期刊論文] -中州煤炭2006(6).
  [3]詹宏昌.《天然氣管道外腐蝕與防護》[期刊論文] -廣州化工2011(11).



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