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淺談基層反貪如何應對二元定罪量刑標準

熱度0票  瀏覽37次 時間:2018年5月03日 08:54


貪污犯罪如何定罪量刑影響著懲治貪污犯罪的力度和效果,是當下反腐敗領域的基礎和實務問題。刑法修正案九已經確立了貪污犯罪“數額+情節”的二元定罪量刑標準,雖然具體數額標準和情節設置有待司法解釋近一步確立,但偵查工作必須提前謀篇布局適應現行二元定罪量刑的立法模式,筆者結合日常工作經驗談談基層反貪對如何應對二元彈性定罪量刑立法的看法。

一、二元定罪量刑標準的概念

所謂二元定罪量刑標準,法條依據是刑法修正案九將原《刑法》第三百八十三條是根據情節輕重,分為四檔刑格,且判斷情節輕重最主要的依據就是“貪污數額”多少;改為規定“貪污數額”與“其他犯罪情節”并重,且沒有依據具體的貪污數額劃分相應的量刑檔次。

之所以要建立數額、情節二元定罪量刑標準,首先這是因為貪污犯罪侵犯法益的特殊性,既侵犯了國家工作人員的廉潔性,又侵犯了公共財產,僅以數額作為定罪量刑依據,難以做到精準打擊;其次貪污犯罪達到一定數額之后,如5000萬,貪污數額與定罪量刑就沒有了實質性的關系,在不判處死刑立即執行的情況下,會產生貪污越多量刑利益越大的死角。

二、單一的貪污罪定罪量刑標準在反貪辦案中的弊端

(一)難以充分體現罪責刑相適應原則。通過反貪個案比較,不難發現個案中的法益、對象、手段、后果等均可能存在差異,僅僅看數額定輕重無法全面、準確、客觀反映貪污犯罪的社會危害性。

(二)難以區分行為人對犯罪的悔罪認罪。不同案件行為人在紀檢或者反貪部門接觸過程中,所表現出來的認罪悔罪、是否退賠、彌補損失行為等差異頗大,但是缺乏明確法律后果標準引導行為人的行為。

(三)難以形成行為人公正處理認知。過往,一般10萬元是貪污罪定罪量刑的一道坎,行為人的供述往往圍繞數額是否達線,同時,案值在10萬元附近的貪污案件,也是行為人庭審階段翻供主要區段,寄希望較低處罰格次,不愿意認罪伏法,如此循環,案件裁判往往會出現數額方面證據收集情況導致判決差異大,行為人拒不認罪的情緒。

(四)難以形成公平正義的公眾感受。案件數額一旦超過10萬元以上,在刑罰上沒有明顯的幅度和梯次之分,公眾對案件處理存在不解,甚至會聯想和懷疑刑罰與行為人原先官階相關、司法部門收受賄賂、政治原因等有違公平正義的公眾感受。

三、二元彈性定罪量刑標準對今后反貪工作的影響

(一)偵查思維方式的沖擊。隨著犯罪情節為成為定罪量刑之一,偵查者如果繼續秉承偵查中心主義,偵查的全面性必然受限,如偵查過程往往不能反映在卷宗材料中,但偵查過程本身的記錄是行為人對犯罪態度最有效、最直接的反映,在辦理反貪案件中,行為人和偵查機關的交鋒程度應該是行為人犯罪情節衡量的標準之一。

(二)偵查內容的的衍生發展。既然法律規定了犯罪情節為定罪量刑標準,收集行為人犯罪情節相關證據就成為偵查活動的必要內容,過往偵查貪污犯罪是為了查清行為貪污犯罪的事實,現在除了查清事實更需要了解貪污犯罪所衍生出來的影響,尤其是針對犯罪影響大、拒不悔罪認罪的行為人,反貪部門有義務收集行為人的犯罪情節證據提供法庭。

(三)偵查者訴訟地位的變化。貪污犯罪中偵查者通過偵查直接感受犯罪行為,犯罪情節的證明需要偵查的闡述,在庭審中心主義的訴訟模式下,偵察者本身也將提供“證言”,結合實物、書面材料證明情節。

(四)偵查手段急需升級。偵查者的勞動成果一般是紙質卷宗,但證明犯罪情節所需要多樣化的科技手段,僅收集電子數據提取一項,就需要偵查者加強扣押、取證、封存等多方面的知識。

四、基層反貪如何應對二元彈性定罪量刑標準 

(一)變革偵查思維。過去相對秘密的偵查狀態形成了封閉的偵查思維,當下的偵查應該學會借助公眾、媒體等力量,適當引入其介入偵查,借以充分展現行為人偵查中變化,提升辦案的法治效果。

(二)改善初查工作質效。辦案重心的前移意義在于偵查機關掌握主動,利于偵查工作的順利開展。通過有效的科學評估線索、分析案件規律、信息研判,對舉報事項提煉成有效案源,甚至初查階段已經掌握主要犯罪證據。

(三)建立新型良性偵辯關系。偵查人員難以全面兼顧偵查程序的雙重目的,即查明犯罪事實、查獲行為人和排除無罪的嫌疑人、收集罪輕的材料。辯護人互信、互訪式的介入,便于犯罪嫌疑人對自身行為的充分認識,達成自我悔悟的效果,但同時對辯護人不法行為的打擊也應提升到一定重視高度。

(四)偵查手段的兩化武裝。過往貪污犯罪的偵查結果多數為賬冊加筆錄的形式,現在為全面了解貪污犯罪的犯罪情節,所需要呈現的可能有電子數據、照片、錄像、座談會、通話記錄等多種形式,貪污手段隨著涉案人員閱歷和所掌握訊息技能的發展,在復雜化、隱蔽化方面已不是過往翻看賬目、核對出入就能發現的低端操作,相對而言就需要偵查手段提升為科技化和信息化。

五、結語

二元彈性定罪量刑標準對于貪污犯罪定罪量刑有著重要意義,對反貪偵查的執法理念、辦案模式、基本素能提出了更高的要求。我們當須清醒提前布局偵查工作,努力提升法律框架范圍內的能力、水平、質效,使反貪偵查工作有新發展、新作為。



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