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氣象色譜儀的日常維護與應用

熱度0票  瀏覽1次 時間:2019年7月05日 11:01
  摘 要:經濟的不斷發展為科技事業的前進提供支持,隨著我國經濟的不斷發展,氣象色譜技術也隨之不斷的進步,氣象色譜技術以其特有的高效、快速的分離檢測優勢在分析領域占有很大的位置,在我國的多個行業都有應用,成為工業發展和科研必須。同時,其功能復雜、對使用人員的操作性要求較高,本文就氣象色譜儀的工作原理和常見注意事項進行探究,促進氣象色譜儀的廣泛應用。
  關鍵詞:氣象色譜儀;工作原理;使用方法;應用一、氣象色譜儀的基本組成
  作為一種在分析領域廣泛應用的儀器,氣象色譜儀的核心組成部分主要有:氣路控制系統、樣品進氣系統、色譜柱和檢測系統等部分。其中氣路控制系統直接決定著定性定量的準確程度,對測量的靈敏度和穩定性起著重要的作用。其主要是為儀器提供檢測必須的燃氣、輔助氣體和穩定的檢測載氣。樣品進氣系統顧名思義就是通過一系列的進氣儀器使樣品進入到色譜柱中。色譜柱是氣象色譜分析儀的核心部分,其可以將樣品中混合物的各個組成成分進行分離。色譜儀的選用直接影響著檢驗的結果準確與否。最后的檢測系統是色譜儀的心臟部位,其主要的作用是將色譜柱分離的不同成分的載流氣體轉化為電信號,進行記錄和分析。在一定程度上檢測系統制約著色譜儀的應用范圍。
  二、氣象色譜儀的使用步驟
  1.開機
  1.即依次打開氣體發生器開關或鋼瓶總閥、減壓閥以及凈化器上的空氣開關閥,通常情況下通氣10分鐘左右。2.在通氣的過程中,要觀察壓力表的示數,判斷溫度值和流量值是否都在允許的范圍內。3.開始升溫,打開開關,溫控系統開始加熱。4.打開工作站,在氫焰的溫度達到預先設定的數值后,開始啟動點火,工作站中氫焰基線上升并以一定的斜率向著零點漂移。5.進入加橋流的階段,如果橋電流的指示燈都亮了就說明已經成功加上橋電流了。6.采集數據,設定采集分離的氣體流轉化成電信號的數據。
  2.關機
  首先關閉工作站,然后關閉氣象色譜儀的電源。在設備儀器中通氣大約30分鐘后,儀器充分冷卻之后就可以關閉氣體的發生進入裝置。
  三、氣象色譜儀的常見故障及維護
  1.進樣色譜出現故障
  主要是指在檢測器的進行樣品的檢驗時候在顯示器上并沒有出現相應的電流信號和色譜的峰值。對于此種情況就需要對樣品和進氣系統進行排查,分析故障產生的原因。(1)檢查進氣系統的通暢情況,如果發生堵塞,那么就會影響樣品和載氣的順利通過,導致進入檢測系統的樣品過低,無法檢測具體的含量。這種情況的解決通常是清洗或者更換注射器。(2)接著是對色譜柱和氣化室進行檢查,主要是檢查嚴密性,不能有氣體的泄露情況。(3)最后還要對檢測系統進行排查,要觀察氫氣火焰是否處于正常的狀態,火焰的燃燒顏色和火焰的峰度都是需要檢查的。最常使用的方法是重新點燃,觀察氫火焰。
  2.基線波動存在故障
  一般在點火之后,加熱絲的長時間工作導致過熱產生變形,這樣就和吸收極所在的平面無法平行,這兩個平面間的電場就會不均勻造成基線波動的故障,影響檢驗結果的準確度。對于這種故障除了排查進氣系統之外要對加熱絲做適當的壓平,把因受熱變形粘連在一起的線圈進行剝離,還有正確的安裝,使加熱絲所在的平面和吸收極的平面相互的平行。
  3.峰值不規則的故障
  色譜儀在工作的時候顯示器上的峰值出現不符合標準的情況,峰值呈現不規則的現象。這種故障的出現通常是檢測用的樣品存在污染不清潔,要解決該故障除了對樣品清潔后在重新檢測之外還有減少氣化室的進氣量降低樣品中的雜物造成的污染。
  四、氣象色譜儀的應用
  1.石油化工分析上的應用
  氣象色譜分析在石油化工領域有著廣泛的應用,既在石油的勘探中有應用又在石油產品的加工和檢測中使用。在石油化工產業,因為良好的性價比而得到很高的歡迎度。在目前的石油化工產品的檢測方式中,沒有哪一種方式可以跟其相比較。
  2.環境分析上的應用
  近年來,環境不斷的惡化,環境問題也引起人們足夠的重視。在環境的檢測中氣象色譜儀也有著很好的應用,其對環境的分析可以是空、水、土一體的全方位的檢測。首先,可以對在空氣中混雜的氣溶性污染物和其他的有害氣體進行分析和檢測。尤其可以對在空氣中的酚類和多環芳烴類的污染物進行監測,實時的掌握空氣中有害氣體的含量。其次,對水質也能有檢驗,主要是分析水中含有的可溶性氣體和有害性的污染物。最后對土地資源的污染情況進行監測,可以利用該技術對土質的組成進行細化分析,得出在土壤中的亞硝酸銨、含硫合物和重金屬的具體含量。對制定可行的污染防治方針起到支持和促進的作用。
  3.農產品檢測上的應用
  在農作物的生長過程中施用一定的除草劑、除蟲劑和化肥是在所難免的。但是施用的過度就會在農產品上造成殘留。隨著人們安全意識的提高,對農產品中農藥的殘留、化肥的留存等都有很高的關注度,那么對農產品中的農藥和化肥的殘留度進行監測就是順理成章的。氣象色譜儀的高靈敏度的檢測度在農產品的檢測中得到很好的普及推廣。
  4.檢測食品成分上的應用
  食品的安全問題是每個人共同關注的問題之一,食品是人類生存的必需,食品的成分和含量直接關系著人類的健康。使用氣象色譜儀對食品進行檢測盒分析,不僅僅是可以檢測食品中營養物質的含量還可以檢測到食品中有害物質的成分和具體的含量。還可以幫助人們制定健康的飲食食譜,享受健康的生活。
  五、結語
  氣象色譜儀在檢測領域得到廣泛的應用,其在諸多的行業都發揮著至關重要的作用。對物質的分析離不開成分的檢測,而最經濟合適的檢測手段就是氣象色譜分析,該技術有高精確度、檢測的快速高效等優勢是其他的檢測方式難以比擬的。希望本文對氣象色譜儀的使用和應用的介紹能夠為使用氣象色譜儀進行一定的指導和分析。對文中的欠缺和不足還望包涵和指導。
  參考文獻:
  [1]孫傳經.氣相色譜分析原理與技術[M].化學工業出版社,2004.
  [2]李長秀, 等. 氣相色譜法測定汽油烴類組成分析技術的應用現狀與發展[J]. 色譜, 2004(9): 521-5.
  [3]曹環禮.氣相色譜技術的研究進展及其應用[J].廣東化工,2009.
  [4]傅若農. 近年國內外毛細管氣相色譜柱的進展和趨向[J].
  分析實驗室, 2009(3).
  [5]李洋.氣相色譜技術的發展和應用[J].安徽農學通報,2010.



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