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對采油工程新技術的探索

熱度0票  瀏覽1次 時間:2019年7月05日 10:56
  摘要:本文介紹對采油工程新技術應用情況,分析采油工程新技術發展趨勢,提出采油工程應借助高新技術的發展,不斷創新采油工程新技術的思路。
  關鍵詞:采油工程;新技術;現狀
  采油工程是實現油藏開發方案的重要手段,是一門涉及機械、電子、化工、熱工、流體力學、材料力學、計算機等多種領域的綜合性應用學科。近年來,隨著科學技術的發展,采油工程技術得到迅猛發展,井筒保溫材料的成功研發,實現了稠油蒸汽吞吐技術、高凝油熱采技術的突破;材料、機械、化工等技術的發展促進了水力壓裂技術的突飛猛進,使低滲、特低滲油氣藏的整體開發成為可能;諸如水平井采油技術、中深層蒸汽驅、SAGD技術、火燒油層等技術的進步無一不與其他學科的發展緊密相關。
  一、采油工程新技術應用情況簡介
  當前科學技術發展日新月異,給采油工程技術進步帶來了更多的機會。采油工程科研人員一直在探索利用高新技術解決用常規采油工藝難以解決的問題。
  1.微生物采油技術
  微生物采油是一種提高采收率技術(MEOR),是將微生物及其營養源注入地下油層,使微生物在油層中生棲繁殖,利用微生物對原油的直接作用,改善原油物性,提高原油在地層孔隙中的流動性,同時利用微生物在油層中生長代謝產生的氣體、生物表面活性物質、有機酸、聚合物等物質,來提高原油采收率的一種方法。
  因微生物采油技術投入少、環保、施工簡單,我國許多石油企業已開展現場試驗,主要有微生物吞吐與微生物驅兩種方式。
  2.水力震動采油技術
  水力震動采油技術目前主要應用在近井地帶解堵、高含水油井水力震動降水,將水力震動器下入至處理井段,通過地面供液源將工作液注入震動器內,震動器激勵工作液產生水力脈沖波,對油層施加作用,實現震動處理地層。水力脈沖波攜帶能量在油層中傳播,以震動和沖擊作用激發震動場內的介質,使介質質點的位移、速度、壓力等物理量發生反復變化。沉積在油層孔隙內的固體附著物逐漸松動剝落,分散在液體中,然后被工作液帶走,疏通油藏堵塞。震動波以強烈的交變壓力作用于地層,在地層內產生周期性的張壓應力。當震動幅度和震動頻率達到一定值時,地層產生裂縫網,從而提高儲層的滲透率。原油在超過其極限切應力的彈性波場內,結構被破壞,粘度降低。地層巖石表面張力降低,毛管力平衡破壞,地層流體的滲流速度加快。
  水力震動采油技術在我國大慶、遼河、勝利、吉林等油田已經有廣泛應用。
  3.納米膜驅油技術
  納米膜驅油技術是一種新型的三次采油技術,MD膜能夠使巖石表面親油性轉為親水性,從而剝離油膜,通過自發吸附作用驅替出孔隙內的殘余油。MD分子膜劑以水溶液為傳遞介質,依靠靜電作用沉積在巖石表面,形成納米級超薄分子膜,改變儲層巖石表面的性質與原油的相互作用狀態,使原油在注入流體沖刷空隙的過程中更容易剝落和流動而被驅替出來,從而提高采收率。
  納米MD膜驅油技術為石油大學(北京)研發,目前在長慶油田現場試驗取得突破。
  4.熱超導采油技術
  熱超導技術在采油工程領域的應用有兩個方面,一是稠油井井筒熱超導加熱技術,即在稠油生產井中將超導液填充到內置鎧裝礦物絕緣電磁加熱線的空心抽油桿中,通過電磁加熱線加熱超導液,超導液的熱量通過抽油桿傳達到抽油桿外壁并加熱油管內的原油,熔化井筒內的結蠟。同時由于電磁效應的作用,抽油桿和油管壁對蠟質產生排斥作用,防止原油中的蠟粘結在抽油桿和油管表面,降低了原油的運動阻力,減少抽油泵的負荷和故障率。二是熱超導洗井清蠟技術,即利用超導加熱器對抽油機井洗井清蠟,原理是采用超導傳熱技術,將油井產出液加熱成高溫蒸氣注入套管環型空間,與油管形成循環,使整個井筒溫度升高,熔化井筒中的結蠟。
  二、采油工程新技術發展趨勢分析
  采油工程新技術稱之為新,與常規技術相比,有些技術還不夠成熟,對其發展趨勢分析應從油藏地質條件、科學技術進步、投入采出比等多方面考慮。
  1.微生物采油技術
  目前微生物采油技術日漸成熟,但其對油層溫度、地層水氯離子含量、有毒離子含量、油層滲透率、原油密度、殘余油飽和度、油藏含水率、油層的本原微生物等有一定的要求,限制了它的應用范圍。隨著基因工程技術的發展,致力于培養出更加優良的菌種滿足于高溫油藏、高礦化度油藏及稠油開采的要求。同時,其他新技術在微生物采油中的應用,如PCR細菌基因檢測方法的確立,為指導MEOR現場試驗,深入開展研究,開辟了一條新路。
  2.水力震動采油技術
  水力震動采油技術處理近井地帶堵塞,應用較為廣泛。
  水力震動采油技術處理高含水井取得較好的降水效果,注水開發油田進入中后期,高含水井逐漸增多,水力震動采油技術在降水方面會有較好的發展前景。
  3.納米膜驅油技術
  納米膜驅油技術經多年發展,目前已在長慶油田取得實質性突破,試驗井(9口)300天累計增產原油達1136.86噸以上。長慶油田屬典型的致密性油氣藏,最大的瓶頸是“多井低產”,而且大部分油區都已進入高含水開發階段。而納米驅油技術正是為了提高老油田產能,進行老區塊潛能改造,提高采出程度而提供的新工藝新技術。大部分老油田將進入三次采油時代,納米膜驅油技術將有很好的發展空間。
  4.熱超導采油技術
  稠油井井筒熱超導加熱技術與熱超導洗井清蠟技術在許多油田已廣泛應用。
  總結語
  相互借鑒能促進科學技術的發展,如納米技術在多學科都有建樹,醫學上應用納米生物技術可有效治療血栓的技術,這一技術已成功繁衍拓展到采油工程中,用于疏通地層中的原油流動通道,改善地層流通能力。科研人員可多方面了解各行業新技術的發展,將各行業各學科的先進技術引用到采油工程中來,不斷創新采油工程新技術,為石油開采企業增加競爭優勢,促進石油開采企業的發展。
  參考文獻:
  [1] 王立智,王云龍.低滲高粘稀油油藏蒸汽采油技術研究[J].
  中國工程科學,2012.6(14):111-112.
  [2] 吳懷志,吳昊.關于海上采油工藝發展的思考[J].中國海上油氣,2012.5(24):120-121.
  [3] 徐文江,丘宗杰,張鳳久.海上采油工藝新技術與實踐綜述[J].中國工程科學,2011.9(13):135-136.



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