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天然氣鉆井井控技術

熱度0票  瀏覽1次 時間:2019年7月05日 10:52
  摘 要:經濟的快速發展使人們對天然氣的需求急劇增加,井控技術在為其安全的開采起到十分巨大的作用。本文首先介紹了井控技術的發展;然后對三級井控技術進行了說明。最后說明了井控技術提高生產效率和經濟效益。
  關鍵詞:天然氣鉆井;井控技術;井控級別
  一、井控技術
  井控技術也稱井涌控制或壓力控制技術,是指通過采用一定的方法控制地層孔隙壓力,來保持井內壓力平衡,保證鉆井的順利進行的技術。在此主要對井下作業中的井控技術的分級作出了簡單介紹,繼而研究了井下作業井控技術所需要面臨解決的各種復雜工況和具體的應用中應當注意的問題。旨在通過對井控技術的研究和發展來為井下作業提供更為安全、穩定的作業環境,保證井下作業施工的順利進行。
  二、井控的三個階段
  井控分三級,井控防噴技術操作亦分三級,其目的是采取一定的方法或措施,控制住地層孔隙壓力,保持井內壓力平衡,保證井下作業順利進行,而編制設計方案,稱為井控預案 。
  1.一級井控方案:是依靠適當的修井液密度來控制地層孔隙壓力,使得沒有地層流體侵入井內,井涌量為零,井口無溢流,而采取的防范措施。
  井浸后的處理措施:當發現井浸后立即搶下鉆具,盡可能多地下入光管;坐崗觀察人員密切觀察返出液體變化情況;由井浸增達到溢流后,執行溢流處理措施。
  溢流(井涌)后的處理措施:作業過程中,必須做到正確發現溢流、井涌,根據常規作業方法處理措施分三種。
  (1)測井作業時發現溢流:發現溢流(井涌)立即停止作業;迅速起出電纜;若溢流增大,出現井涌,而來不及起出電纜時,關閉電纜閘板(剪短電纜),關套管閘門,試關井,記錄套壓值,接放噴管線;若關井壓力接近最高限壓,應控制放噴;向項目部匯報,組織壓井液壓井。
  (2)起下鉆作業時發現溢流:發現溢流(井涌)立即停止作業;馬上搶裝帶有蘑菇頭的防噴管掛(無法安裝防噴器時采用,安裝時管串上的球閥處于打開狀態);或搶裝旋塞法(旋塞閥處于打開狀態),之后,關閉防噴器,在關閉套管閘門,記錄套壓值;若關井壓力接近最高限壓,應控制放噴;向項目部匯報,組織壓井液壓井。
  (3)旋轉作業時發生溢流(井涌):發現溢流停止作業;打開套管閘門,立即上提鉆具,搶裝蘑菇頭防噴管掛或關閉旋塞閥(方鉆桿下旋塞失靈時,馬上關閉上旋塞)及防噴器;關套管閘門,試關井,記錄套壓,接防噴管匯;若關井壓力接近最高限壓,應控制放噴;向項目部匯報,組織壓井液壓井。
  2.二級井控預案:依靠井內液體不能控制住地層孔隙壓力,造成井內壓力失衡,地層中的流體侵入井內,出現溢流或井涌,這是需要依靠地面設備,通過井控技術加大液體密度,消除井口溢流,恢復井內壓力平衡而采取的防范措施。
  在各種工藝任何工況下,實施二級井控時,現場作業都應立即實施關井;在關套管閘門,試關井,記錄套壓,接放噴管線;若關井壓力接近最高限壓,應控制放噴;向項目部匯報,組織系統力量,根據井控設計實施壓井。
  3.三級井控預案:是指二級井控失敗,井口溢流量增大,井涌失去控制,發生井噴,此時要采取適當技術和設備重新恢復對井的控制而采取的安全防范技術措施。
  (1)在發生井噴初始,應停止一切施工,搶裝井口或防噴井控裝 置 ,搶 裝 新 井 口 控 制 裝 置 前 ,必 須 進 行 技 術 交 底 和 演習。
  (2)井噴失控后應避免發生火災,立即切斷危險區電源、熄滅火源、動力熄火。
  (3)向有關部門報警和求援,迅速成立由領導和相關井控專家組成的領導小組,制定、篩選、確定最優的搶險預案;消防、交通及醫療搶救部門迅速趕赴現場,嚴陣以待。
  (4)易燃易爆物品脫離危險區;對井口噴出的油流進行圍堵和疏導,排放到泥漿坑。
  (5)設置警戒線,疏散人群;清除井口周圍及搶險通道上的障礙物,保證搶險通道暢通。
  (6)搶險人員具備全面的防護及監測措施;必須使用防爆工具,嚴禁使用鐵器工具敲擊其它物品。
  (7)在人煙稠密區或生活區要迅速通知熄滅火種,必要時采取疏散措施。
  (8)搶險中每個步驟施工前,必須進行技術交底和演習;井噴失控處理不得在夜間進行。
  (9)用加重劑配置一定密度的壓井液,壓井液儲備量不少于2倍井筒容積,壓井作業應連續進行,中途不得停泵,注入排量一般不低于500L/min,成功壓井結束后,開井觀察4~6小時,井內穩定無變化為合格。
  (10)當井噴失控,短時間內無有效的搶救措施時,要迅速關閉附近同層位的注水井,在注入井有控制地放壓,降低地層壓力,已達到盡快制服井噴的目的。
  4.常規大修作業工況井控預案圖 :在不同工況下作業,更好地預防和控制井噴,發現溢流,及時關井,關井技術具有簡便性、實用性,符合“六.七”操作技術程序,達到正確關井目的,可參看常規作業工況井控預案圖。
  3.井控技術應用要注意與提高生產效率相結合
  井控技術的主要功能在于其提供和保障生產作業環境的安全,但是在安全生產的基礎上對企業來說更要提高生產效率和經濟效益。在井下作業井控技術的應用中要想做到這一點就必須保護好油氣層,以保證生產能夠實現最大效率,實現企業的目標。
  結論
  隨著國內外天然氣的高度發展;井控技術在為其安全的開采起到十分巨大的作用。本文首先介紹了井控技術的發展;然后對三級井控技術進行了說明。最后說明了井控技術提高生產效率和經濟效益。
  參考文獻:
  [1] 王忠生,林安村. 重溫事故吸取教訓提高井控技術水平[J].
  鉆采工藝,2009,03:1-4+124.
  [2] 吳志均,陳剛,郎淑敏,龍濱,王勇,李偉. 天然氣鉆井井控技術的發展[J]. 石油鉆采工藝,2010,05:56-60.
  [3] 鄧勇. 塔里木山前超高壓油氣井井控技術研究[D].西南石油大學,2010.
  [4] 許劍川,陳中民,高盼龍. 關于油氣井井控技術的研究與探討[J]. 中國石油和化工標準與質量,2014,02:109.
  [5] 曾時田. 對現代井控技術的認識[J]. 天然氣工業,1983,02:
  34-36+6-7.
  [6] 高明建. 論井控技術在井下作業中的應用[J]. 中國石油和化工標準與質量,2012,04:62.
  [7] 徐丹,劉潤廣,陳林. 井控新技術新設備的應用[J]. 內蒙古石油化工,2007,01:48-49.



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