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試論水稻主要病蟲防治技術措施

熱度0票  瀏覽45次 時間:2018年9月04日 15:01


摘要 水稻在我國種植的面積較大,也是我國居民的主要谷類食物之一,隨著耕地面積的減少與人口的增多,盡管農業科技不斷發展、新品種不斷出現,水稻的產量對人們的生活水平仍然至關重要。但是水稻與其他的植物一樣,在種植與生長的過程中會有病蟲害,使水稻的產量下降的同時水稻的質量也降低,給經濟效益與社會效益帶來一定的影響。因此對水稻的病蟲害的防治措施的研究有其必然性,本文就水稻病主要蟲害的防治措施進行探討,以期給廣大種植戶提供一些建議與依據。

關鍵詞 水稻 病蟲害 防治技術

1 前言

    自古以來,水稻就是我國主要的糧食作物之一,無論是在我國的北方還是在我國的那方,水稻的種植面積都在農作物的中職免責中占有較大的比例。按照我國居民的生活習慣,水稻也是人們生活中必不可少的食物。所以水稻的產量與質量對我國居民的生活有重要的影響。印象水稻產量以及質量的因素除有不可抗的自然因素與地域、環境差距之外,還有水稻的病蟲害。據統計,我國已知的病蟲害有400多種,其中有20多種較為常見,而極為常見、也是較難防治的有水稻飛虱、二化螟、水稻紋枯病、白葉病四種,本文就這四種水稻的病蟲害的餓防治急性探討1

2 水稻主要病蟲害

2.1 水稻飛虱

水稻飛虱是水稻主要的蟲害,水稻飛虱的種類繁多,對水稻危害最大的是其中的白背飛虱與褐飛虱,其可以對水稻生長的各個時期均造成傷害,對水稻的生長構成嚴重的威脅。水稻飛虱以吸取稻叢的汁液為食,在吸取稻叢汁液的同時還會釋放毒素,使稻梗變黑甚至死亡,水稻患水稻飛虱之后,一般產量會下降10-20%,嚴重者水稻產量可下降60%,甚至可導致水稻顆粒無收。給稻農造成嚴重的經濟損失2

2.2 二化螟

二化螟在貴州地區最為常見,在我國的其他地區也有分布,其主要對稻鞘產生危害,特別是幼蟲對水稻的危害最大,如果是在水稻的分蘗期感染稻種卷葉螟,會使水稻出現楛鞘、枯心苗、白穗、死孕穗等情況,嚴重影響到水稻的產量3。二化螟還有一個特點就是其生存力較強,可以隱藏在稻根部過冬,且過冬時,二化螟處于蛹、幼蟲等不同的生理形態,給病蟲的識別帶來較大的難度。二化螟也會使水稻的產量減少10-20%,嚴重者會使水稻產量減少50%以上,而二化螟引起的水稻倒伏也是水稻減產的間接原因。

2.3 水稻紋枯病

水稻紋枯病被稻農形象的稱為水稻上的癌癥,是由灰飛虱傳播的發生于水稻上的真菌感染,水稻的真菌感染易發生在水稻的抽穗期或是水稻的孕穗期,眾所周知,水稻的抽穗期與孕穗期是水稻的關鍵時期,如果這一時期的氣溫較高且雨水較少,則水稻易被真菌感染而患紋枯病。水稻患紋枯病的主要表現就是稻穗較小、稻粒畸形或空心,進而導致水稻的產量明顯下降,給稻農帶來直接的經濟損失。

2.4 白葉病

水稻白葉病主要是發生在多于的季節,由于水分過大是水稻容易滋生細菌,水稻被細菌感染之初在稻葉尖部與稻葉邊緣產生黃綠色斑點,然后延葉脈漸漸發展為蒼白色長條形斑塊,最后變成灰白色,繼而稻株枯死。患水稻白葉病的水稻,極易發生倒伏,及時水稻不枯死也會出現倒伏的現象,會使水稻的產量減少。

3 水稻主要病蟲害的防治措施

3.1 水稻病蟲害的化學治理

目前,我國范圍內對水稻病蟲害的防治主要是對水稻采用化學治理的方式,即通過根據水稻的患病類型對水稻進行相應的化學藥物治療的方式來對水稻的病蟲害進行防治。對水稻飛虱可以使用氯蟲苯甲酰胺、甲氰菊酯、甲氨基阿維菌素苯葉酸鹽等對蟲害進行治療;對二化螟可使用三唑磷乳油、殺螟松乳油等治療蟲害;對水稻紋枯病可應用井岡霉素、稻腳青、三唑酮等化學藥物進行治療;對白葉病可用葉青雙、氯霉素對疾病進行治療4。對于水稻的其他病蟲害也要根據水稻的病蟲害種類并結合當地的生態環境對病蟲害進行相應的治理。但是在對水稻病蟲害應用化學藥物進行治療的時候要注意化學藥物的合理使用,并注意避免長期使用一種化學藥物,以免使病蟲對藥物產生耐藥性。

3.2 水稻病蟲害的綠色防控

盡管使用化學藥物對水稻病蟲害進行治療的效果較好且起效較快,但是,化學藥物對種植水稻的土壤環境會產生一定的影響,并會改變土壤的微環境,在治理水稻病蟲害的同時,也殺滅土壤中的非致病菌或土壤中的其他微小生物,進而破壞生態平衡。從可持續發展的角度來看,使用化學藥物治理水稻病蟲害的遠期效益不大,且化學藥物會在水稻中蓄積,進而對人類的身體造成一定的傷害5。所以,對水稻病蟲害的 防治可以根據生態規律采用綠色防控。目前,我國南方采用稻鴨共作或是稻魚共作的方式來防治水稻的病蟲害,達到治療水稻病蟲害的目的的同時,與水稻共作的生物也會給稻農帶來可觀的經濟效益。

綜上所述,根據水稻的不同的生長時期的特點以及水稻所患病蟲害的種類對水稻病蟲害使用化學藥物進行防治,可以避免水稻減產。但是,從長遠的角度看,應積極開發水稻的綠色防控技術,保護水稻種植的微環境與生態大環境,避免化學藥物在水稻中蓄積而給人們身體帶來傷害,爭取社會效益與經濟效益的最大化。

參考文獻

[1]潘紹佐.淺談水稻病蟲害防治[J].農民致富之友,2014,14:42-43.

[2]李蓮,朱春文,康翠萍.水稻病蟲害綠色防控技術研究[J].農村經濟與科技,2014,09:37-38+146.

[3]封建芳.水稻病蟲防治對比研究[J].現代農業科技,2014,18:136-137.

[4]潘戰勝,江水明,江峻峰,鄒琴琴,劉華源.水稻主要病蟲害對產量的影響及化學防治效益初探[J].中國植保導刊,2014,05:26-29.

 



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