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再生水景觀回用富營養化機理及其修復研究

熱度0票  瀏覽104次 時間:2017年10月17日 09:09


摘 要城市污水再生景觀利用是提高水資源綜合利用率,減輕水體污染的有效途徑之一。再生水景觀回用既能減少水環境污染,又可以緩解水資源緊缺的矛盾,是貫徹可持續發展的重要措施。污水的再生利用和資源化具有可觀的社會效益,環境效益和經濟效益,已經成為大多數城市景觀水體的必選。而國內外學者對如何有效的修復再生水體富營養化問題做了很多研究,本文總結了國內外關于再生水體富營養化的機理,化學修復、物理修復、生物修復及新型修復方法

關鍵詞再生水景觀水體;水體富營養化;機理;修復方法

引言

城市景觀水體一般具有水域面積小、易污染、水環境容量小、水深較淺、水體自凈能力低、多為靜止或流動性差等特點,一般認為[1],水體發生富營養化的指標是:①水體中含氮量大于02 mgL,含磷量大于001mgL;②生化需氧量大于10mgL;③在淡水中細菌總量達到104個/mL。《城市污水再生利用景觀環境用水水質》指標值相對于《地表水環境質量標準》中的營養鹽指標值較為寬松,比如對于景觀環境用水水質指標,氨氮的指標為5 mgL,總氮指標為15 mgL[2],因此再生水景觀水體富營養化風險較大,本文主要對水體富營養化的機理,水體富營養化的預防及控制措施三方面總結再生水景觀水體富營養化的預防修復的方法、理論

1 再生水富營養化機理

富營養化發生所需的必要條件有三個方面:充足的TNTP等營養鹽;緩慢的水流流態;適宜的溫度條件[3],從目前我國再生水景觀水體的富營養化狀況來看主要表現在高氮、磷含量水體在其他外界條件的刺激下藻類的快速生長,發生“水華”,而氮和磷的作用往往是相互關聯的,不同的氮、磷比例不僅會對細胞的生長速度造成影響,甚至對細胞內物質的吸收儲存也有影響,也即:只有氮磷達到適合的比例,才會導致水華的爆發[4]。而根據瓦倫韋德在總結世界環境署的研究成果80%的水庫湖泊的富營養化是受磷元素制約的,大約10%的富營養化與氮和磷元素有關,余下的10%與氮和其它因素有關,因此氮磷元素是研究富營養化的關建所在。而在一般情況下,水體中大多數的藻類具有從大氣中同化氮氣的能力,因此,磷的含量通常作為富營養化的標志[5]。目前許多杰出的學者多杰出的學者都逐漸意識到水體中磷酸鹽含量的增加在湖泊富營養化中重要的作用[6]

2 水體富營養化的預警、修復

2.1預警

根據陳中兵,鄭廣宏等人的研究[7]從水質指標變化看,pHDO對細胞的生長狀況有一定的預先指示作用;濁度與細胞生長狀況呈正相關關系,在氮質量濃度影響下電導率與細胞牛長狀況呈正相關關系,在磷質量濃度影響下電導率與細胞生長狀況呈負相關關系。

2.2修復

目前水體富營養化的治理包括物理修復、化學修復和生物修復及其他修復技術。

2.2.1 化學修復

這類方法包括凝聚沉降和化學藥劑殺藻等[8]。投加化學試劑可使營養物質生成沉淀而沉降,如加入石灰脫氮、加入鐵鹽促進磷的沉淀等。其雖然效果較好,但會受時效、水域、水體流動性等的局限,且易造成二次污染,尤其是大規模人工合成物的使用可能會給環境帶來負面影響。目前該類修復方法存在著廣譜與專一、長效與殘留的矛盾,如何解決這些矛盾,研制出高效、廣譜、持久、低毒的殺藻劑是富營養化治理工作的主要課題之一。

2.2.2 物理修復

物理方法[9] [10] [11]包括定期補水沖稀營養鹽濃度;底泥疏浚通過對底部污泥的清掏,減少水體沉積物的營養鹽含量,從而減輕可能發生的內源污染;定期或不定期為湖底深層曝氣而補充氧,使水與底泥界面之間不出現厭氧層,經常保持有氧狀態,有利于抑制底泥磷釋放;通過過濾除去湖泊水體中浮游藻類等,恢復湖泊潔凈好氧生態系統,保持湖泊清澈、碧綠的景觀效果但其費用較高,并存在一些難以克服的弊病。

2.2.3生物修復

生物修復技術包括利用栽培的植物,現在國際上公認的淡水水生修復植物有寬葉香蒲、蘆葦、苦草、鳳眼蓮、軟水草和狐尾草等[12],經驗證它們對水中的營養物質和污染物均具有很好的吸收作用;培養的微生物,目前國內在這方面進行了很多研究,中國科學院南京地理與湖泊研究所利用固定化增殖氮循環細菌群SBR法凈化富營養化湖水[13],經固定化細菌群ZBR工藝凈化后,水質得到明顯的改善;放養水生動物凈化和恢復受污染的富營養化水體如武漢東湖的圍隔試驗證明了鏈魚和鳙魚能有效控制藍藻水華[14],并指出當放養的鰱魚和鳙魚的有效生物量達到4650 gm2時,可有效地抑制水華的發生,它的優勢在于:低投資,低能耗、處理過程與自然生態系統有更大的相融性等[15]

2.2.4新修復技術

隨著科技水平的進步,在水體富營養化的防治方面涌現出一些新的技術方法如:利用水泵抽取湖中的水,經集高溫、高壓、強磁場、強電場、自由基、紫外線、空化流等于一體的電液壓脈沖[16]產生的沖擊力和高溫,可實現殺菌、殺滅浮游生物,從而達到凈化水的目的;在外源污染源得到廣泛研究后,從水體沉積物中的內源釋放人手。來尋求控制水體富營養化的有效手段如在進行人工濕地設計根據進水中各污染物含量結合當地基質選擇具有去污和再生能力的基質[17];利用超聲波在水中產生一系列接近于極端的條件破壞細藻類胞壁、氣胞、活性霉達到抑藻、殺藻[18]等,總之新的水體修復理論和技術在不斷發展,相信會有更好的發展。

結語

總之,防治再生水景觀水體富營養化將是一個長期持續的任務。應將有效控制污染源與生態修復相結合。特別是做好春夏秋季節的監測,以預防控制為主,力求使水質維持在不適宜藻類迅速繁殖的條件,對于發生富營養化的湖泊應通過多種修復方式的綜合應用恢復水體的自凈能力,使水質逐步恢復原貌。

 


參考文獻:

[1]靖華,田寧寧.再生水回用于景觀水體存在的問題及防治對策〔J〕.給水排水,200632(5) 7l-74

[2]趙樂軍,劉琳.關于現行再生水水質標準和規范執行情況的討論〔J〕.給水排水,200733(12) 120-124

[3]李錦秀,廖文根.富營養化綜合防治調控指標探討〔J〕.水資源保護,200224-5

[4]陳中兵,鄭廣宏等.不同氮磷濃度對盤星藻生長的影響〔J〕.生態環境,200817(4) 1338-1341

[5]余婭,汪慧貞.再生水補水水體中氮磷對斜生棚藻生長影響的研究〔J〕.給水排水,20093579-82

[6]王振強,劉春廣等.氮、磷循環特征對水體官營田苗養化影響分析〔J〕.南水北調與水利科技,20108(6) 82-86

[7]陳中兵,鄭廣宏等.不同氮磷濃度對盤星藻生長的影響〔J〕.生態環境,200817(4) 1338-1341

[8]宋關玲.生物修復技術在水體富營養化治理中的應用〔J〕.安徽農業科學,200735(27)8597-8598

[9]劉莉.再生水景觀水體中富營養化的時空變化〔D〕.西南大學.2009

[10]宋關玲,侯文華等.適用于青萍修復的水體富營養化狀況的研究〔J〕哈爾濱工業大學學報.200638(10) l793-1796

[11]GUANLING,WENHUA HOU,QUNHUI WANG,et al.Effect of low temcperatune on eutrophicated waterbody restoration by Spirodela polyrhizaJ〕.Bioresource Technology2006971865-1869

[12]鄢恒珍,龔文琪等.水體富營養化與生物修復技術評析〔J〕.安徽農業科學,200937(34) 1700317006

[13]李正魁,濮培民.固定化增殖氮循細菌群SBR法凈化富營養化湖水〔J〕.核技術,200124(8) 674-679

[14]張曉良.中科院水生生物研究所揭開武漢東湖藍藻水華消失之謎〔J〕.科學新聞,2001(14) 17-20

[15]種云霄,胡洪葵,錢易.大型水生植物在水污染治理中的應用研究進展〔J〕.環境污染浩理技術與設備,2唧,4(2) 3640

[16]陳德淑,廖振方等.湖泊水體富營養化的治理〔J〕.重慶大學學報,200730(3)116-119

[17]朱鐵群,解蒙,袁航.人工濕地基質及其去污機理〔J〕.節水灌溉,20080(10)37-39

[18]陳堅.環境生物技術〔M



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